Gallipoli was a failed gamble, but if succesfull would have been a major victory, leadership did matter but as far as I know the failure was basically due to mistaken expectations that the Turks would break. Caporetto was basically a failure of command, Badoglio's orders to withhold fire "to conserve ammo" and the command and communications breakdown, which as corps commander he was responsible for, led to the disintegration of his corps that in turn forced a global retreat of the whole front. At Caporetto the same troops that had bravely assaulted strong Austrians mountain positions for years proved unable to react effectively in a more fluid environment, this was to happen time and again in WW2. IMHO the key weakness was in command, as long as they held the initiative the badly led Italian soldiers were reasonably effective, though likely to suffer heavy losses due to unimaginative planning, the results of the CSIR in the USSR in 1941 are comparable to similar German units, but in defensive battles the lack of effective leadership made the forces extremely brittle. Some units made of high quality troops made up for this lack by low level initiative, but the bulk of the conscript units were likely to shatter in a confused situation. Also significant is that the Italian line soldier fought at a firepower advantage against most of his opponents due to poor choices in infantry weapons, only the medium mortars were on a par with foreign equipment, the rifles, grenades, machine guns, light mortars, and anti tank guns were all poor designs, and the Beretta SMG was much to expensive to produce for widespread distribution, which wasn't likely to contribute to morale. The low firepower practically prevented effective infiltration tactics as the squads lacked the firepower to operate unsupported practically forcing the use of more costly linear attacks. What is amazing in Badoglio's note of July 1940 is: - 1) He was convinced that understanding the capabilities of mechanized forces was not a priority. - 2) He truly believed the war would be over in a few weeks.