1. Waterborn actions of the 3rd Cdn Inf Div in Op Veritable: In the opening stage of Veritable, the Canadian 3rd Infantry Division (ID) had to cover the left flank of 30 Corps and capture the low-lying, inundated polderland between the Nijmegen - Kranenburg - Cleve road and the River Waal (or Rhine). This area contained the northern end of the enemy defensive line, which ran from the high ground at Wyler, to Zyfflich and along the Querdamm and Duffelt Dijk to Leuth and Zandpol, on the River Waal (or: Rhine). To strengthen their defense the Germans decided to inundate the Canadian held polder land to the west of the Querdamm. On 21 December 1944, they breached the dyke along the River Waal, known as Erlekomsche Dam, hard east of Erlecom, (for pictures see: 3rd Canadian Division in Op Veritable). The inner dyke, or Erlekomse Bandijk also had been breached at two points, at the Thorensche Molen and somewhat further to the west near Nijmegen, so that the river water could freely flow from the 'Polder van Erlecom' into the remainder of the 'Ooij Polder' all the way up to Nijmegen. But the inundation came too late, the water level in the Waal River, which peaked at record levels in early December, by that time had receded and did not rise again until the first week of February 45. Though the dykes had been breached, the polder was not flooded that winter because of the low water levels. However at the beginning of February a mighty spill of water from the swollen Waal started to flow through the gaps into the low lying area held by the Canadians. By the start of Veritable the entire area west of the Querdamm was submerged. Unlike the popular image, the polder land on the German or eastern side of the Querdamm and Duffelt Dike, also known as 'Duffelt' was still dry, though not completely. The Querdamm for the time being kept the floods out, but water was rapidly becoming a problem on the enemy side of the dyke as well. The flooding disrupted the intricate drainage system of the river flats. Usually the water in this area flows through the Wyler Meer towards the water pumping station near the Nijmegen bridge, where it was pumped up into the Waal River. Now that the natural drainage was blocked, rain and melting water had accumulated on the eastern side of the Querdamm. The situation further aggravated by seepage water from the submerged area, as a result of the sandy composition of the soil water was squeezed underneath the dyke. So the area east of the Querdamm, especially the lower parts, was far from dry. Apart from that there was the risk of further flooding, any attack to the east of the dike would immediately provoke the enemy to breach it and thereby flood the entire 'Duffelt'. Map indicating the gaps in the dykes east of Erlekom and at the Thorensche Molen through which the water entered the polderland; the water level of the Waal river started rising in early February, with a sudden lapse on 4 February when the river rose nearly two meters in a day, and finally reached its highest point on 14 February. Thereafter the floods gradually subsided. The fact that the area was under water or was threatened by floods did not change the original plans; an amphibious operation was not unforeseen, nor was it new to the 3rd Cdn Inf Div; 114 Buffaloes of the 79th Armoured Division were available for the operation. H-hour for the 3rd Cdn Inf Div was 1800 hours. The attack was divided into two phases. During Phase I, on a two Bde front, 7th Cdn Inf Bde on the right and 8th Cdn Inf Bde on the left, the 3rd Cdn Inf Division was to advance to the line of Millingen - Duffelward. In Phase II the 9th Cdn Inf Bde, initially held in reserve, would pass through the 7th Cdn Inf Bde and advance to the Spoy Canal, running north out of Cleve and clear the area between Cleve and the Rhine River. Map with the phases of the operation of the 3rd Cdn Inf Div on the river flats during Veritable (Courtesy Hans van der Wiel). Below: Soldiers of the 3rd Cdn ID transported by Buffaloos. The church and houses in the background form the village of Persingen - officially the smallest village in Holland: a church and three farm houses. Stills were taken from Canadian Army newsreel: Persingen today (courtesy of Street View): The village is sited on top of an ancient River Dune dating from the Glacial period. View to the west; Nijmegen is visible in the background.