TRANSPORT This page contains a complete list of all softskin, wheeled vehicles (plus armoured 15cwts). Where the vehicles are fully described elsewhere on the site a reference is given, otherwise they are described here. Click for Vehicle Drawings All the vehicles listed below are believed to have served with British troops in 21 Army Group. The list follows the War Department practice in the War Establishment Tables in having the following order Bicycles Motorcycles Cars Ambulances 15cwt trucks including armoured 15cwts and halftracks 3ton lorries Heavy lorries Tractors Trailers THE LIST (IN ORDER). Bicycles BSA Standard Bicycle. BSA Ladies Bicycle Motorcyles Ariel W/NG 350cc. BSA M20 500cc. Matchless G3/L 350cc. Royal Enfield WD/CO 350cc. Triumph 3HW 350cc. Cars Car 5cwt 4 X 4. Car Light Utility Austin. Car Light Utility Hillman. Car Light Utility Morris. Car Light Utility Standard. Car 4 seater 4 X 2 Humber Snipe Saloon Car 4 seater 4 X 2 Humber Snipe Tourer Car 4 seater 4 X 2 Splinterproof Car 4 seater 4 X 2 Ford WOA1 Staff Car Car 6 seater 4 X 2 Humber Pullman Limousine Car 6 seater 4 X 2 Special for C in C, Rolls Royce Car Heavy Utility 4 X 2 Ford WOA2 Car Heavy Utility 4 X 4 Humber FWD. Ambulances Humber FWD 4 X 4 Light Ambulance 2 stretcher. CMP Chevrolet 4 X 4 Light Ambulance 2 stretcher. Austin K2 2ton 4 X 2 Ambulance 4 stretcher. CMP Ford 3ton 4 X 4 Ambulance 4 stretcher. 15cwt trucks Bedford MW GS Bedford MW Fitted for Wireless Bedford MW Water Bedford MW KL Welding Bedford Machinery Type T Ford WOT2H GS Ford WOT2H Office Ford WOT2H KL Welding Ford WOT2H Wireless House type as Light Warning. Morris C4 Wireless House Morris C4 Compressor Morris C8 4 X 4 Wireless House Morris C8 4 X 4 Water Morris C8 4 X 4 Fitted for Wireless. Guy 15cwt 4 X 4 GS CMP Chevrolet and Ford 4 X 4 GS Chevrolet 15cwt 4 X 4 AA Truck 15cwt 4 X 4 Armoured, Personnel. Truck 15cwt 4 X 4 Armoured, FFW. Truck 15cwt 4 X 4 Armoured, Wireless. Truck 15cwt halftrack FFW M5 Truck 15cwt Halftrack as 17pdr AT Tractor Truck 15cwt Halftrack, Wireless, M5 Truck 15cwt halftrack Ambulance, M9. Truck 15cwt halftrack Fitters Truck 15cwt halftrack Personnel, M14 Truck 15cwt halftrack, with winch, load carrier (ammunition), M14. Truck 15cwt halftrack Command, M14. Halftrack M16 Quadruple .5” AA. M3 75mm Halftrack GMC 3ton Lorries Bedford OYD 3ton 4 X 2 GS. Bedford OYD 3ton 4 X 2 Disinfestor Bedford OYD 3ton 4 X 2 Slave Battery. Bedford OYD 3ton 4 X 2 X Ray. Bedford OYD 3ton 4 X 2 Workshop. Bedford OYD 3ton 4 X 2 Stores. Bedford OYC 3ton 4 X 2 Water, 500 gallons. Bedford OYC 3ton 4 X 2 Petrol, 800 gallons. Austin K3 3ton 4 X 2 GS. Bedford QL 3ton 4 X 4 GS. Austin K5 3ton 4 X 4 GS Austin K5 Westex Recorder Ford WOT6 3ton 4 X 4 GS Karrier K6 3ton 4 X 4 GS and GS with winch. Albion FT 11 3ton 4 X 4 GS Thorneycroft Nubian 3ton 4 X 4 GS CMP Chevrolet 3ton 4 X 4 GS. Albion FT11 3ton 4 X 4 Machinery Flat Floor. Machinery B Machinery H Machinery I Machinery I30 Machinery J Machinery M Machinery X Ford WOT6 3ton 4 X 4 Machinery Flat Floor. Machinery B Machinery H Machinery I30 Machinery J Machinery M Machinery X Ford WOT6 3ton 4 X 4 Machinery House Type. Machinery D1 Machinery F Machinery Z Ford WOT6 3ton 4 X 4 Machinery 24Kw RE. Bedford QL 3ton 4 X 4 Kitchen Bedford QLC Dental Laboratory Bedford QL Operations Room Bedford QLT 3ton 4 X 4 Troop Carrying Vehicle. Bedford QL 3ton 4 X 4 Fire Tender. Bedford QLR Lorry Command Vehicle HP Type A, 12HP/19 Bedford QLR Lorry Command Vehicle HP Types D and E, 53/12. Bedford QLR Lorry Command Vehicle LP Types A, 19HP/19 Bedford QLR Lorry Command Vehicle LP Type A, 19HP/19. Maximum Staff Bedford QLR Lorry Command Vehicle LP Type A, 19HP/19. Body Type 2. Bedford QLR Wireless HP Type C. 33 Bedford QLR Wireless HP Types E and K. 12 HP Bedford QLR Wireless HP Types G, H and J. 53 Bedford QLR 3ton 4 X 4 Signal Office. Bedford QLR 3ton 4 X 4 Wireless I Bedford QLR 3ton 4 X 4 cipher office Bedford QLT 16 TEV foot body TEV Division. TEV Corps. TEV Army. Bedford QLR Wireless House Body No 1 TEV Bedford QLR Wireless House Body Type 15 TEV Bedford QLT with teleprinters Austin K6 3ton 6 X 4 GS Austin K6 3ton 6 X 4 Stores. Austin K6 3ton 6 X 4 Bacteriological Laboratory. Austin K6 3ton 6 X 4 Chemical Laboratory. Austin K6 3ton 6 X 4 Breakdown Gantry. Austin K6 3ton 6 X 4 Crane. Leyland Retriever 3ton 6 X 4 Breakdown Gantry. Leyland Retriever 3ton 6 X 4 Crane. Leyland Retriever 3ton 6 X 4 Pontoon. Leyland Retriever 3ton 6 X 4 Machinery Flat Floor Type M. Albion BY5 3ton 6 X 4 FBE. 4 ton lorries. 4 ton 4 X 4 FWD HAR 4 ton Diamond 968 6 X 6 4 ton Diamond T 969 6 X 6 Wrecker 4 ton Ward La France 6 X 6 Wrecker 6ton Lorries Dennis Max MkII 6ton 4 X 2 GS. 6ton 4 X 2 – 2 Bedford OXC GS. 6ton 4 X 2 – 2 Bedford OXC Platform. 6ton 4 X 2 – 2 Bedford OXC Petrol. 6ton 4 X 2 – 2 Bedford OXC Golden Arrow 6ton 4 X 2 – 2 Bedford OXC Blue Train 6ton 4 X 4 – 2 Chevrolet Hollerith semi trailer 6ton 4 X 4 – 2 Bedford QL 6ton 4 X 4 – 2 CMP 6ton 4 X 4 - 2 FWD SU COE 6 ton 4 X 4 – 2 FWD HAR1. 10 ton Lorries Leyland Hippo MkII 10 ton 6 X 4 GS. Foden DG/6/12 10 ton 6 X 4 GS. Foden DG/6/10 10 ton 6 X 4 GS Foden DG/6/10 10 ton 6 X 4 platform Foden DG/6/12 10 ton 6 X 4 Camera Lorry. Foden DG/6/12 10 ton 6 X 4 Dark Room Lorry. Foden DG/6/12 10 ton 6 X 4 Photo Mechanical. Foden DG/6/12 10 ton 6 X 4 Printing. No1. Two printing presses. No2. Monotype, composition and super casters for setting up the type. No3. Imposing stone, type cases and a proof press. No4. Finishing equipment including a folding press, stitcher and guillotine. Mack NR9 10 ton 6 X 4. Mack NR14 10 ton 6 X 4. Mobile Crane 10 ton 6 X 6 M2 Heavy Transporters Albion CX24 15ton GS. White Ruxtall 922 18 ton 6 X 4. Scammell Pioneer Semi Trailer Recovery Transporter Diamond T Semi Trailer Recovery Transporter Diamond T 980 Tank Transporter. Diamond T 981 Recovery Transporter Caravans Leyland Retriever 3ton 6 X 4 with Office Caravan Body. Mack NR 10ton 6 X 4 with Sleeping Caravan Body. Fordson 7V with Map Caravan Body. Amphibians Truck 10cwt Tracked GS, Weasel. M29. 10cwt Tracked amphibian GS, Weasel. M29C. 2½ ton 6 X 6 Amphibian. GMC DUKW 353. 4 ton 8 X 8 Amphibian, Terrapin. Tractors Morris C8 4 X 4 Field Artillery Tractor MkIII Morris C8 4 X 4 Field Artillery Tractor MkIII with MkV body Morris C8AT 4 X 4 Anti Tank Tractor (ex Portee) Morris C8AT 4 X 4 Anti Tank Tractor (ex Predictor) Morris C9 Self Propelled 40mm Bofors. CMP 4 X 4 Ford and Chevrolet. AEC Matador 4 X 4 Medium Artillery Tractor FWD SU COE 4 X 4 Medium Artillery Tractor FWD SU COE 4 X 4 Cargo (as tractor) Mack NM 6 X 6 Medium Artillery and Heavy Equipment Tractor Mack NO 6 X 6 Heavy Artillery Tractor Scammell Pioneer 6 X 4 Heavy Artillery Tractor Scammell Pioneer 6 X 4 Heavy Recovery Tractor Mack LMSW 6 X 4 Heavy Recovery Tractor Albion CX22 6 X 4 Heavy Artillery Tractor Bedford QLB Bofors Tractor. Tractor, High Speed, 38ton M6 Trailers Trailer 10cwt 2 wheeled Lightweight GS Trailer 10cwt 2 wheeled GS Trailer 10cwt 2 wheeled Mortar Trailer 15cwt 2 wheeled Load Carrying Trailer 15cwt 2 wheeled Pole Carrying Trailer 15cwt 2 wheeled Water 180 gallons Trailer 2 wheeled Dental Trailer 2 wheeled 22Kw Generating Set Trailer 1 ton 2 wheeled GS No5 MkI Trailer 1 ton 2 wheeled Water 180 gallons Trailer 1 ton 2 wheeled Water Purification Trailer 1 ton 2 wheeled Steriliser Trailer 1 ton 2 wheeled Gas Welding Trailer 1 ton AA Command Post Trailer 1 ton 2 wheeled Pigeon Loft (60 Bird) Trailer 2 ton 4 wheeled GS dropside Trailer 2 ton 4 wheeled GS open (Canadian) Trailer 2 ton 4 wheeled Beam Wireless Trailer 3 ton 2 wheeled Cable Drum Trailer 4 ton 4 wheeled Bakery Machinery Trailer 4 ton 4 wheeled Bakery Dough Trailer 4 ton 4 wheeled Bakery Oven Trailer 4 ton 4 wheeled AOD with Bins Trailer 4 ton 4 wheeled AOD Open with Davit Trailer 5 ton 4 wheeled GS Trailer 5 ton 4 wheeled Smoke Generator (Haslar) Trailer 5 ton 4 wheeled Smoke Generator (Esso) Trailer 5 ton 4 wheeled Laundry Washer, Trailer type A Trailer 5 ton 4 wheeled Laundry Boiler, Trailer Type D Trailer 5 ton 4 wheeled Laundry Dryer, Trailer Type C Trailer 5 ton 4 wheeled Laundry CCS Trailer 5 ton 4 wheeled Pontoon 50/60 Class Trailer 2 ton 4 wheeled 150mm Projector (Searchlight) Trailer 3 ton 4 wheeled 150mm Projector (Searchlight) with radar. Trailer 5ton 4 wheeled Radar AA No3 MkII Trailer 5ton 4 wheeled Radar AA No4 MkIII Trailer 5ton 4 wheeled Radar AA No1 MkII Trailer 6 ton Freuhof Carriage of Tracks Trailer 6 ton Jahn Carriage of Tracks Trailer 7 ½ ton 6 wheeled Light Recovery Trailer 18 ton 4 twin wheeled Low Loader for RB excavator Trailer 18 ton 8 wheeled Low Loader for RB excavator Trailer 18 ton 8 wheeled Low Loader, Carrimore Trailer 20 ton 8 wheeled Low Loader, Crane Trailer 20 ton 16 wheeled Low Loader, Multiwheeler Trailer 40 ton 24 wheeled, Rogers Trailer 40 ton 24 wheeled MkI Trailer 40 ton 24 wheeled MkII Trailer 45 ton tracked recovery Trailer 80ton 40 wheeled Trailer 4 wheeled Motor Boat Carrying Trailer 4 wheeled FBE BICYCLES BSA Standard Bicycle. Bicycles were used in large numbers by all arms and services. The BSA was the standard type for both British and Canadian armies. It was sturdy but basic, not having gears and having rod operated brakes front and rear. There was also a ladies model for the ATS. MOTORCYCLES Motorcycles had census numbers prefixed C. The motorcycle has not received the attention it deserves. The army used large numbers of machines in a wide variety of roles yet publications and articles which deal with military motorcycles are notably few and far between. At the start of the war the War Office had a clear idea of the machines it needed. In common with most types pf equipment tests and trials had been carried out over many years, and small production orders placed. By early 1940 production of several types was meeting demands but nearly all the best and newest machines were lost with the Fall of France. To make up the losses the War Office requisitioned many civilian machines, bought dealers stocks, accepted machines as gifts, ordered machines from the USA and ordered machines from pretty well any manufacturer able to deliver. As the war progressed the army was able to standardise to some extent. Apart from various lightweight models for airborne forces, Commandos and assault formations, production was concentrated on 350cc Overhead Valve and 500 cc Side Valve machines. In addition many components and fittings were standardised. By 1944 21 Army Group was able to reduce the number of types of machines to a mere handful. Production was by then meeting demand and non standard types were relegated to Civil Defence, to training, to reserve formations, or sent to remote parts of the world. 21 Army Group was able to concentrate on the following Ariel W/NG 350cc. This motorcycle was initially rejected by the War Office and was ordered by the French Army in 1939. However it was ordered by the War Office in 1940 and more than 40,000 were delivered by 1945. It was a popular machine with front line units because of its good cross country performance. BSA M20 500cc. BSA were a large company and able to produce in volume. The M20 Model was in production throughout the war and more than 60,000 were delivered. They were intended for long distance communications and convoy work, but came to be used in a wide variety of roles. Many were fitted to take a side car although few actually did so. Matchless G3/L 350cc. This was produced in larger numbers than any other machine. In production from late 1941 it was soon the most common type in service. Its lightweight and good ground clearance made it popular with front line users, although it was difficult to service and maintain. Royal Enfield WD/CO 350cc. Some 30,000 of these were delivered from 1942. They were largely used for rear area convoy escort and communication duties. Poor ground clearance and lack of protection underneath made it unsuitable for cross country work and thus for front line use. Triumph 3HW 350cc. The Triumph factory was destroyed by bombing and when it resumed full production in 1942 it concentrated on this new model. Some 30,000 were delivered and it was a popular machine. CARS. Cars included jeeps, light utilities and staff cars. They had census numbers prefixed M. THE JEEP Car 5cwt 4 X 4. This was the famous jeep. Earlier deliveries were Ford models but later Ford and Willy’s were delivered under Lend Lease. The jeep was built on the US military principles of designing a no frills vehicle using standard engineering and readily available parts. While being designed for its purpose it was versatile and capable of performing a variety of tasks without major modification. The jeep was essentially a two seater vehicle. There was a bench seat in the back which could carry two more personnel but there was hardly room for four men in combat equipment plus their kit. Used by the British at first for specialist roles it soon became common in almost every unit, often replacing solo motor cycles, motor cycle combinations, light utility cars and 8cwt trucks. LIGHT UTILITIES On the outbreak of war the manufacture of light cars almost ceased. A few saloon cars continued to be produced for the forces, and some open tourers were also produced for a short time. However by far the greater part of the production lines which were previously used to make light cars were used to turn out militarised versions. These were to a common design as far as possible but tailored to suit each manufacturer’s chassis and front end sheet metalwork. The body was a pick up truck type with a canvas tilt on three hoops. The hoops could be stowed at the front of the body when not in use. There was a tailgate and the body had stowage lockers at each side and these incorporated the wheel arches. The body had two folding seats at the front end. The civilian bonnet, front wings, front doors and forward part of the saloon car roof were retained. A spare wheel was carried on the roof of the cab. These vehicles remained in production throughout the war and there were small changes, usually to simplify production and economise on materials. They were good all round general purpose vehicles and although replaced by the jeep in forward areas they continued to be used in considerable numbers in rear areas. Considerable numbers of these utilities were used in the various headquarters. Senior officers had larger saloons but most officers used light utilities, or car 2 seater 4 X 2, often from a pool. They were also used as general purpose vehicles where a jeep’s four wheel drive was not necessary and a 15cwt was too large. Some 65,000 were produced. Austin Light Utility. The Austin 10 saloon car was the basis for the Austin G/YG utility. However the wider doors from the tourer version were used and there were a number of small modifications including a slightly larger cylinder bore to give 11hp. There were many minor improvements and modifications but not enough to warrant a new mark. Around 30,000 were produced. The Austin was the most numerous of the Light Utility or Car 2 seater 4 X 2 class of vehicles. The following were features of 1943/44 production of all this class of vehicle. - One piece tilt with no openings. Early versions had a front panel which could be opened or removed to allow an AA Bren gun to be used. They also had two ‘window’ panels in each side. - Wheels with no hub caps. Early versions had hub caps. Very late versions had sling hubs. - Trafficators were deleted, or only fitted to the near side. They were in any case replaced by mechanical arms rather than electrically operated. - Stronger door hinges were added. - Split cabs were fitted so that the top could be removed for shipping - Fittings for stretchers were fitted to the body, these were previously available as kits - Most vehicles, although not Austin, were fitted with a simple mesh radiator grill. The quilted radiator muff was a standard feature. It could be completely fastened to keep the engine warm. To allow more cooling the top half could be rolled up. To allow maximum cooling the bottom half could be rolled up also. Hillman Light Utility. The Hillman utility was based on the 10hp Hillman Minx four door saloon car. This meant that the doors were narrower than on other utilities. However it did leave room for a slightly longer body. Changes to this vehicle warranted several marks including MkI, MkIa, MkII, MkIIa, MkIIb and MkIV. MkIIb was the most numerous. Some 20,000 were produced. Morris Light Utility. The Morris Ten Series M provided the basis for this utility. However new doors based on the 2 door Morris 8 were used. 8,000 were produced. Standard Light Utility. The Standard Utility differed from the others in several respects. It was not produced until 1943 and was based on a car with a larger engine. The 12hp Standard engine was used together with the chassis from the 14hp Standard car. These gave greater power and greater strength, thus greater reliability. Only the bonnet and front wings of the civilian car were used. The cab had a canvas top, folding rectangular windscreen and square doors with canvas/Perspex upper halves. STAFF CARS Staff cars needed to be large enough to carry four men and their equipment plus baggage, maps, weapons, tools etc. Cars of this type were not required to have a good cross country performance but would need to be capable of driving along rough tracks. They also needed space for commanders and staff officers to read maps and confer while travelling in some comfort. In civilian use these cars would normally be five or six seater but in military use were normally four seater. Britain did not have a volume producer of large four seater saloon cars before the war. Such cars were common in the USA and similar cars were produced in Canada but the only pre war British vehicle which was taken into large scale service was the Humber Snipe. Humber Snipe Saloon This was a modified civilian saloon fitted with larger wheels and tyres and wider wings. There were two seats in front and a bench seat for two in the rear. A folding map table was fitted behind the front seats. There was a roomy boot which also carried the spare wheel, and a roof luggage rack with a waterproof cover. Car 4 seater 4 X 2 Splinterproof. An armoured Humber Snipe for the use of the C in C (Montgomery). It is not clear if this was a normal Humber Snipe with some armour added, or one of the batch made for the use of the Royal Family which were much like the light reconnaissance car. Ford WOA1 Staff Car The Ford WOA1 staff car was typical of the type These large Fords were not directly based on a pre war model but used a readily available Ford V8 85 bhp engine and other readily available mechanical parts. After the war Ford demilitarised it and sold it as the 3.5litre V8 Pilot. The Ford WOA1 was a four seater 4 X 2 car with four doors and a reasonably roomy boot. It was also fitted with a roof luggage rack. The front end was militarised in a style common to a number of Ford WD types. It was fitted with larger than normal wings to accommodate the larger than normal wheels and tyres. Humber Pullman Limousine This was a rare bird used by senior commanders. It was similar to the Humber Snipe Saloon but had a longer chassis, allowing a longer body to be fitted. There were two seats in front, a bench seat for two at the rear and two folding occasional seats . A glass partition separated the drivers compartment from the passenger compartment. There was a boot and luggage rack as for the saloon. Car 6 seater 4 X 2 Special for C in C. Two Rolls Royce Phantoms were used by Montgomery throughout the campaign. See 21 Army Group Tactical Headquarters. Ford WOA2 Heavy Utility This was a six seater utility or estate body based on the Ford WOA1 saloon. At the rear there were full width doors divided horizontally. There were two seats in the front, two separate seats in the rear and two tip up occasional seats in the rear corners. The two rear seats could be folded forward to provide a large space for carrying baggage and equipment. There was a folding table behind the front seats. There was a sliding panel in the centre of the roof. Originally these vehicles were intended for commanding officers of battalion sized units, but in 21 Army Group were used as staff cars at headquarters. Humber FWD Heavy Utility. This was a completely new design with a roomy box shaped body on the four wheel drive chassis as used by the Light Reconnaissance Car and Light Ambulance. It had a steel body with six seats, two in front, two in the rear and two occasional seats in the rear corners. The rear doors divided horizontally and could be fitted with canvas screens when open so as to provide a sleeping area. There was a map table behind the front seats and a luggage rack with canvas cover on the roof. A wireless set could be fitted in the rear. The Humber FWD was issued to commanders and staff officers who needed cross country performance. Captured staff cars There are many photographs of captured German cars in service but almost all of these are immediate post war examples. Certainly once the fighting in Europe was over all German equipment was gathered together and usable load carriers put into service in Germany, Austria and Holland. Motor cycles and cars were issued to members of the occupation forces. Cars went to officers and motorcycles to NCOs. These were issued with census numbers from a special block and vehicles carried full markings. Unofficial use of captured cars was frowned upon. It is known that some German cars were used in the big cities where headquarters were to be found - Antwerp, Amsterdam, The Hague and Brussels. These were unofficial and there for unrecorded. Mercedes, BMW and Horch were always popular. Such cars might have full markings but no census number, although some did have the initials or official abbreviations of the person or unit using them. AMBULANCES See also Services/Medical for more detailed information on ambulances. All ambulances had census numbers prefixed A. Jeep Ambulances. Kits were issued to allow jeeps to carry two or three stretchers on a removable frame. Humber FWD 4 X 4 Light Ambulance 2 stretcher. This light ambulance was based on the Humber FWD 4 X 4 heavy utility (car 4 seater 4 X 4). Two stretchers could be carried in the nearside of the body. The frames for these extended into the cab area. Three sitting cases could also be carried. CMP Chevrolet 4 X 4 Light Ambulance 2 stretcher. This was based on the Canadian Chevrolet 8cwt heavy utility. It could carry the same numbers as the Humber but access was more difficult. Few were used in 21 Army Group. Austin K2 2ton 4 X 2 Ambulance 4 stretcher. This was fitted with a standard WD ambulance body which could carry two stretchers on either side, or ten sitting cases. CMP Ford 3ton 4 X 4 Ambulance 4 stretcher. A short wheelbase 3ton CMP Ford chassis fitted with special springs. The body was fitted as for the Austin. Relatively few were used in 21 Army Group. 15cwt TRUCKS In War Department terminology a truck was a load carrying vehicle with a capacity of less than 30cwt. This class originally included 8cwt vehicles but these were obsolete by 1944 and none went to Europe. In the late 1930’s there were several manufacturers who produced 15cwt trucks, most as platoon trucks to carry an infantry units baggage and heavy weapons. There were soon many variants for special roles. All trucks carried a census number prefixed Z. In 21 Army Group 15cwts had been updated from the original prewar designs by - being fitted with a full windscreen - having metal doors with windows, although these were removable Perspex and canvas units - having a canvas cab tilt with a hip ring over the passenger seat. This was for anti aircraft use, although more for observation than as a gun mount. - having a steel body although the Bedford continued to have a wooden one fitted. - having a tubular tilt frame and canvas tilt Some 15cwt GS trucks were fitted with seats. Two could be fitted on each wheel arch and one in each corner to give a total of eight. The tilt could also have perspex windows. This vehicle could then be called 15cwt personnel. This role was more commonly carried out by armoured 15cwts in forward units. The driver continued to sit on a very low seat cushion with legs extended almost horizontally and squeezed beside the engine. Bedford MW. The Bedford MW was one of the original prewar 15cwt designs but had been updated. It was the most common of the 15cwts but in its GS role was usually found in rear area units. It was the only 15cwt used for water bodies and FFW bodies and these were widely used by all units. Bedford MW GS The Bedford MW GS continued to use a wooden body throughout the war. It was used by most units but was less common in front line units, especially as 4 X 4 types were introduced. Bedford MW Fitted for Wireless The FFW, or Fitted for Wireless, body was almost identical to that of the GS truck. It had however a power take off on the gearbox driving a dynamo and Perspex windows in the tilt sides. There was a table across the front of the body on which a wireless set could be mounted. Batteries were stored under the table. Down the sides of the body were lockers for equipment and spare aerial sections. There were seats for three personnel, one facing forward at the wireless table for the operator and two facing sideways. Each member of the crew could use the wireless via a headset. There was a chore horse battery charger in a metal box under the floor of the driver’s position. There was no room for a spare wheel so this was mounted on the tailboard. Aerials were mounted on the tilt frame and varied according to the role and the wireless sets carried, but usually mounted at the centre front of the tilt frame. Wireless sets were usually either No19 or No22. Bedford MW FFW TR1143/22. This was a special version for use by the Royal Artillery to receive information from RAF tactical reconnaissance planes. The FFW body was similar to the standard type but the wireless table was arranged to accommodate a TR 1143 set and a No22 set. On the right hand side was the TR 1143 set which was an RAF four channel VHF set as used in aircraft. Being designed for use in single seater aircraft it lacked knobs and switches. There was a transmit button and a separate channel selector. On the left hand side was the No 22 set and control unit. Pairs of 6 volt batteries were stored under each end of the table. The 22 set could use a 12 foot aerial when mobile, this was mounted at front centre of the tilt frame. An alternative when stationary was a 34 foot rod aerial mounted in a socket mounted towards the right hand side of the body front. This could only be used when stationary and should be braced. The TR 1143 set had a 16 foot dipole aerial mounted on a base just to the left of the rear centre of the tilt frame. An operator sat in front of the wireless table. There were two folding seats to the rear, both facing forward, for the use of RA personnel. All three personnel could use headsets to control the two sets. More usually the sets could be connected to automatically retransmit thus allowing the reconnaissance aircraft to communicate directly with remote army sets. All the equipment could be removed from the vehicle and operated on the ground. Bedford MW Water By 1944 the Bedford MW was the only 15cwt water truck and was therefore used by almost all units. Some units used trailers instead. The front end of the truck was as for the GS version but a water tank was carried instead of the normal wooden body. Water could be pumped directly from any stream or pond using pumps and filters at the front of the tank, although the tank could be filled through a hatch on top of the tank if the water quality was assured. At the rear were pipes and taps through which cans etc could be filled. A spare wheel was mounted on the nearside of the tank. A trained water dutyman usually travelled with the vehicle and the driver was also usually trained in water duties. These personnel tested water for purity. Bedford MW KL Welding It was realised that it was wasteful in time and resources to send vehicles back to a workshop to have simple welding jobs done. A Murex electric welding set was mounted in a normal GS body and was sent forward to repair vehicles with their units. The welding set occupied most of the body but there was space for welding rods on the wheel arches, stowage lockers at the rear and a folding welding table at the front. A cable reel was fixed on the front of the welding set housing. Usually a trailer with gas welding equipment was towed behind the truck. Used by REME. K was the designation for a welding vehicle and L stood for light. Bedford Machinery Type T This was more usually an RAF type. It had a house type body which could be fitted internally for the repair and maintenance of signal equipment, including radar. It was intended to maintain equipment on site to avoid the disturbance of moving the equipment to a workshop. Ford WOT2H GS The Ford WOT2 15cwt truck was introduced in 1940 and remained in production throughout the war. It was never as numerous as the Bedford but it was slightly longer and more commonly used in frontline units. It could be found with a wooden or metal body although the late WOT2H version normally had a metal one. A spare wheel and a tool box were carried between the cab and the body, The cab and body were similar to those of the Bedford. Ford WOT2H Office This was the only 15cwt office truck in use by 1944. Most battalion sized units had one, and they were used in other roles by RA Survey units. The body had lockers for office equipment and there were two desks fitted to accommodate typewriters. The sides of the canvas tilt could be raised and extended to form a penthouse on either side. The truck carried folding tables and chairs to furnish these side extensions. Many were replaced by 3ton lorries later in the war. Used by most forward units. Ford WOT2H KL Welding This was identical in equipment and role to the Bedford version. Used by REME. Ford WOT2H Wireless House type as Light Warning. This was a slightly modified wireless house type body (see Morris C4) which carried a rotating aerial array on the roof. Similar types were used by the RAF but the army type was used by AA artillery to give early warning of the approach of aircraft. In army service the radar was AA No4 MkII. A No 22 set was carried for communication with a control centre, although telephone communication was preferred. Morris C4 GS Early in the war the Morris CS8 was the most numerous 15cwt truck but it was later modified with a larger engine and a 9 inch longer wheelbase to accommodate specialist bodies. The Morris C4 GS had cab and body similar to the Bedford and Ford versions and could be used in the same roles. Morris C4 Wireless House The Morris C4 Wireless House was used by the Royal Signals for the sections attached to units. They could carry a variety of equipment. In standard form this vehicle had an all steel body with a rear door. A generating set was carried in a compartment at the rear offside and this could be used in the vehicle or dismounted. There was a folding table at the front offside exterior. Aerial mounts to suit the sets carried were mounted on the front of the roof. The main set aerial usually in the centre and any other on the offside. There was a dynamo powered by a power take off on the gearbox. Internally there was a bench across the front for the wireless set or sets, with batteries under. Sets known to be carried include No9 Canadian, No12, No19, No19HP and No22. There was also a Wireless R version with two receivers. Morris C4 Compressor The compressor was used by the Royal Engineers to carry and power pneumatic tools. The compressor was mounted in a standard GS body, but without a tilt. Various tools were carried on the wheel arches. Morris C8 4 X 4 GS The Morris C8 4 X 4 was based on the chassis of the Morris Quad Field Artillery Tractor but with the following changes - No winch was fitted. - A 15cwt GS body in either wood or steel was fitted. This was 6inches wider than the normal 15cwt body. - A two seater cab with canvas top was fitted. - The bonnet top and radiator were slightly modified in that they were rounded. 7,500 GS versions were ordered but not all were delivered. How many were in service by the end of the war is not known. Front line units were the first to receive them and they were specified for armoured units. Morris C8 4 X 4 Wireless House In addition to the GS version 400 FFW variants of the Morris C8 4 X 4 were ordered were ordered. Again it is not known how many were delivered by the end of the war. Morris C8 4 X 4 Water These are specified in later war establishment tables but it is unlikely that any were in service. Morris C8 4 X 4 Fitted for Wireless. These are specified in later war establishment tables but it is unlikely that any were in service. The Bedford continued in service for many years and armoured formations used the armoured 4 X 4 and halftrack versions. Guy 15cwt 4 X 4 GS These were based on the Guy Quad Ant Field Artillery Tractor and were similar to the Morris. They were comparatively rare birds in NW Europe. Not many were produced and many were built as 6pdr AT tractors. They were not used in the latter role on active service. CMP Chevrolet and Ford 4 X 4 GS Canada produced several variants of the 15cwt truck. They were designed to the same specification as the British 15cwts but were more powerful and had wider bodies. Chevrolet and Ford versions differed only in the engines fitted. Both had identical cabs although both cab types 12 and 13 were used. Since the Canadian army preferred the Ford most of the vehicles supplied to Britain were Chevrolet. Chevrolet 15cwt 4 X 4 AA A number of Bedford MW and CMP Chevrolet 15 cwt were built to carry 20mm Polsten AA guns. An ammunition trailer was towed. Only the Chevrolet were used, and then only in Normandy, the 4 X 4 drive being particularly useful on the beaches. In common with all 20mm guns they were withdrawn when they found little work to do. Armoured 15cwt Trucks. These were all US built vehicles, either White 4 X 4 or International Halftracks. Often they were interchangeable in War Establishments with White 4 X 4 being replaced by halftracks in some roles. Truck 15cwt 4 X 4 Armoured. These were the US supplied White Scout Car. They were similar to the halftracks but were shorter. When tested in the UK they received a very poor report but they were popular in service for their powerful engines and four wheel drive rather than for their thin armour. There was no rear door so entry and exit was usually over the side. Skate rails were fitted for machine guns but it was very rare for armament to be carried in British service. Truck 15cwt 4 X 4 Armoured, Personnel. In a personnel role the armoured 4 X 4 could carry eight men which made them suitable for use in reconnaissance regiments and armoured car regiments, and for field engineers in armoured divisions. They found many other uses. Truck 15cwt 4 X 4 Armoured, FFW. As wireless vehicles they were cramped. These vehicles were used by units and they generally had one or two Wireless set No 19 across the front of the vehicle. Truck 15cwt 4 X 4 Armoured, Wireless. When used by the Royal Signals these vehicles were even more cramped. The layout was generally different to that of the FFW since a greater variety of technical equipment was fitted. Typically a Wireless set No19 was fitted at the rear right of the body and a second Wireless set No19 on the left hand side. The rest of the space was filled by the operators, batteries and charging engine. A tilt was usually fitted. Alternative wireless fits were one No19 and one No19HP, one No12 and even, in a contact car, one Canadian No9, one No22 and two TR1143. Fortunately this latter was more usual on a halftrack. 15cwt Armoured Truck, Halftrack. The International series of halftracks were built for Lend Lease. They differed from the US Army M3 series in having a different engine, flat section front wings and curved rear corners. Externally it was impossible to tell the difference between the M5 and M9. In US service the M5 was a personnel carrier with seating for twelve and the M9 was an artillery tractor with seating for ten plus internal stowage bins for ammunition and equipment. In British service either could be used as personnel carriers or tractors, plus many other uses. M5 Halftrack M5 was the Lend Lease equivalent of the M3 armoured personnel carrier. When fitted with a machine gun mount this became M5A1. The basic vehicle was used in the motor battalions of armoured brigades, and some were also used in armoured car regiments and reconnaissance regiments. In British service they were roomy since the British section was smaller than the US squad for which it was designed, eight men instead of twelve. Truck 15cwt halftrack FFW M5 These were standard M5 halftracks with mountings across the front of the body for either two Wireless sets No19 or one Wireless set No19 and one Wireless set No 19 High Powered. Some were customised with more substantial protection from the weather. Truck 15cwt Halftrack as 17pdr AT Tractor In the armoured divisions the standard 17pdr tractor was the M5 halftrack with winch. Although there was an artillery tractor version, the M9, it seems that the M5 was preferred for this role. The M9 had internal ammunition stowage bins which would not take the 17pdr round, which was anyway usually carried in boxes. The M5 had sufficient space for the crew and the ammunition. Some photographs show the M5 and 17pdr being used with a 25pdr limber. The winch was for self recovery of the tractor, which could find itself in some difficult situations when emplacing and recovering its gun. Truck 15cwt Halftrack, Wireless, M5 This type of vehicle was used by the Royal Signals. They were M5A1. In these vehicles the wireless sets, usually a Wireless set No19 and a Wireless set No 19 High Powered, were fitted down the left hand side with seating for the operators on the right hand side. The wireless sets were continuously manned and the signalmen used Morse as well as voice. Signal logs were kept and messages written on signal forms. M9 Halftrack M9 was built as an artillery tractor with ammunition bins. In British service those with winches were used as tractors for 17pdr anti tank guns. Other vehicles were used as personnel carriers. When fitted with machine gun mounts it became M9A1. Truck 15cwt halftrack Ambulance, M9. The unit ambulances could be of several types. Early versions were simply one of the standard vehicles issued to the unit. Some had stretcher racks added down one side. A canvas tilt was fitted. Normally machines without machine gun pulpits were used. Later purpose converted M9 halftracks were issued. These had the seats and fuel tank removed from the left hand side and replaced by stretcher racks for two stretchers. The removed fuel tank was installed on the right hand side together with full length bench seats for walking wounded. Truck 15cwt halftrack Fitters Fitters were originally issued with a halftrack of the type or types used by the unit. Usually a vehicle with winch was used. All M14 and a proportion of M5 and M9 were built with front mounted winch. As M5 halftracks were much in demand they were the least common in this role. Fitters were well placed to customise their vehicles and many seem to have been given a more permanent roof of metal and canvas. The often described and photographed vehicles with front mounted jibs were later and belonged to REME. M14 Halftrack M14 was built with twin .5” anti aircraft machine guns. 1600 were built and all were delivered to the British who removed the guns and used them for a wide variety of roles. All M14 were fitted with a winch. They did not have rear doors but did have the top of the sides and rear hinged so that they could fold down. Truck 15cwt halftrack Personnel, M14 These were usually M14 with the body well retained and wooden seats installed. Normally the front part of the body between the fuel tanks was for equipment and the rear part of the body had seating for eight men. These vehicles were not intended as armoured personnel carriers but as replacements for the Loyd carriers which previously carried spare crews and were used as general runarounds by units. Truck 15cwt halftrack, with winch, load carrier (ammunition), M14. As an ammunition carrier the M14 simply had a flat floor installed over the well. 25pdr ammunition was carried in sixteen of the standard four round shell boxes and eight cartridge cases each containing eight charges. Truck 15cwt halftrack Command, M14. These were M14 with a layout similar to the FFW. There were mountings across the front of the body for either two Wireless sets No19 or one Wireless set No19 and one Wireless set No 19 High Powered. The control units and vehicle harness allowed the sets to be used by officers in the rear of the vehicle. According to the role being filled the remaining space carried staff tables, map boards, artillery boards etc. These vehicles had tilts fitted, normally M14s did not, and most had internal lighting. Some were customised with more substantial protection from the weather. Halftrack M16 Quadruple .5” AA. The M16 was adopted by the British in 1945 and was used in small numbers in self propelled LAA units. It had a Maxson powered turret with four .5” machine guns on a modified M3 halftrack. M3 75mm Halftrack This was an M3 haltrack with a modified French 75mm field gun. It was used in armoured car regiments until heavy armoured cars could be issued. Only 11th Hussars used them in 21 Army Group. 3 TON LORRIES In WD language a lorry was a load carrying vehicle with a capacity of three tons or over. The 3ton lorry was by far the largest category of vehicle. All lorries of whatever load class had census numbers prefixed L. 3ton 4 X 2 3ton 4 X 2 lorries were all based on prewar commercial designs. Most had simplified front end sheet metal work and by 1944 all those in service had WD split rim wheels and military tyres. Bedford OYD 3ton 4 X 2 GS. The Bedford OY was by far the most numerous 3ton 4 X 2 lorry in service. The basic GS vehicle was fitted with a steel flat floor body with fixed sides and headboard, and a drop tailgate. It had a canvas tilt on a tubular frame. Petrol tanks were mounted either side of the chassis and a spare wheel mounted between the cab and the body. Tyres were 10.50 – 16. Bedford OYD 3ton 4 X 2 Disinfestor. See also Services/RAOC Disinfestor equipment could be carried on any 3ton lorry but when used by the RAOC it was usually mounted on a Bedford OY with a dropsied body and no tilt. The equipment could be dismounted and operated on the ground. It was used for the killing of lice by steam heat. Bedford OYD 3ton 4 X 2 Office. Many OY GS lorries were converted for use as offices. This was usually done at unit level. However there was a need for dedicated office vehicles and a house type body with windows along both sides was designed. This had an entrance at the rear and entrances at the front on both sides. Normally six desks and an array of cupboards were installed. Tent extensions could be added to both sides and the rear to accommodate extra tables and chairs. Bedford OYD 3ton 4 X 2 Slave Battery. This was a GS vehicle with the body fitted for the slave battery role. Duties included starting other vehicles using the on board batteries and jump leads. It also included the transport, charging and repair of batteries, and the repair of wiring. Two dynamos, driven by a power take off, were provided for battery charging and a third for the slave batteries. Racks were provided down each side for batteries and acid carboys. Bedford OYD 3ton 4 X 2 X Ray. A standard OY chassis with an X Ray body fitted. The body had a generator compartment at the front with an entrance door on the nearside and a flap on the offside which could be let down to form a horizontal platform for the generating set. The rear compartment contained X Ray equipment and had a rear door with removable steps. Bedford OYD 3ton 4 X 2 Workshop. The RASC remained responsible for the maintenance and repair of their own vehicles when REME assumed responsible for all other vehicles. This was the RASC workshop vehicle. It was a standard GS body fitted with the following comprehensive equipment, lathe, switchboard, charging board, dynamo, electric drill and stand, vice, welding plant, portable forge, portable air compressor, electric grinder, post drill, tool chests and anvil. Bedford OYD 3ton 4 X 2 Stores. This was also an RASC vehicle having a standard GS body with the following modifications: wire mesh screens were fitted to the tilt frame to prevent pilfering, full length benches on both sides, storage bins under the benches, compartments for small items above the benches and a writing desk. Bedford OYC 3ton 4 X 2 Water, 500 gallons. A Bedford OY fitted with a 500 gallon water tank. This was fitted with a power operated pump in addition to hand pumps and filtering equipment. Bedford OYC 3ton 4 X 2 Petrol, 800 gallons. A standard OY chassis but fitted with a fire screen behind the cab, the exhaust was repositioned to exhaust in front of the screen and extra chassis cross members were added. A detachable tilt frame and tilt were supplied so that the vehicle could look like a GS type. The tank had two compartments and a hand operated pump. Austin K3 3ton 4 X 2 GS. This filled the same specification as the Bedford OY and was fitted with the same body. They were not built in large numbers and the engine was less powerful. Some could be found in rear area units but they were not used in RASC companies. Commer Q4 3ton 4 X 2 Mobile Church Late in 1944 four Mobile Churches were built on Commer Q4 chassis and paid for by a group of anonymous donors. All of these vehicles were well appointed and had the body divided into living accommodation for the chaplain and a rear area that could be opened up to form a church, complete with altar, although the congregation would be in the open air. A very full description of the Commer Mobile Church was published at the time. The body was a van type with an extension over the cab. The interior was panelled in oak and oak faced plywood. The front compartment had an entrance on the offside. Inside was a folding bed, a desk, a chair and a wardrobe. The rear had split doors with the top opening upwards to provide a roof and the bottom folding down to provide a platform. The rear portions of the sides also folded down to provide platforms and canvas side screens could be erected. The interior of the rear portion contains an altar, storage for vestments, altar rail, credence table kneeling pad, book rest and a bell. The vehicles came equipped with cross, candlesticks, brocade altar cloth, flower vases and Communion cup. The sloping front of the body had a large chromium plated cross. 3ton 4 X 4. 3ton 4 X 4 GS By far the most common 3ton 4 X 4 was the Bedford QL but there were platoons operating Ford WOT6, Canadian CMP types and Austin K5. All were four wheel drive, all were forward control and all had steel bodies with a removable frame and canvas tilt. The vehicles were found in the echelons of regiments and battalions, as well as RASC Transport Platoons and most front line units. Bedford QL. The Bedford QL was the most numerous British 4 X 4 3ton lorry. It has become also the best known and the best liked of all the 4 X 4 3tonners. This is undoubtedly because although not being particularly military it is one of those vehicles that both ‘look the part’ and ‘look right’. Also of course it had a long service history, remaining in British Army service long after the other vehicles in the class were sold of to civilian users or given to foreign armies. Many have also survived for 60 years and still attend shows under their own power. The first Bedford QL was produced in February 1940, having been given priority status in September 1939. At that time the BEF was still being built up in France. Soon of course the whole planning was changed. Almost all the vehicles sent to France, and that was almost all the most recently produced vehicles, were lost. Just producing vehicles to replace the losses was now top priority and new designs had to wait. Series production started in 1941 when nearly 4000 were produced. When production ceased in 1945 52,248 had been produced. The QL was very different to previous military 3ton GS types, probably because this was not a type of vehicle that Bedford had previously produced. They had concentrated on reasonably priced, large volume commercial vehicles. The QL had the following features - Four wheel drive. This was not revolutionary, it had been used on artillery tractors, but had not previously been used on load carriers. Largely that was because there was very little commercial demand for such a vehicle. That consideration no longer applied since there was no commercial production. It ceased in February 1940. Pre war military types were 6 X 4 with WD patented rear bogies. - A forward control enclosed cab. Military vehicles had long been forward control but had open cabs, civilian vehicles had closed cabs but forward control made engine access difficult, and there for expensive and unattractive to civilian users. - An engine which could be produced in volume and was used in all Bedford vehicles from 15cwt to 6ton. This standardisation was important to the military user. The Bedford engine was a six cylinder, 3,518cc petrol unit. Of course there is always a trade off and the QL had a high silhouette as a result of its closed cab and high ground clearance. It also had a high loading height requiring extra effort when loading and unloading. The Bedford engine was underpowered by Canadian and US standards. The Bedford QL with standard WD 3ton body could carry 3tons across country but was capable of carrying more on roads. When delivering to forward areas it was not always known where the lorry would end up so 3ton load was normal. Unladen it could manage 48 miles an hour, but this was unwise as it tended to turn over on sharp bends. In service it was governed to 38 mph and in practise used a convoy speed of 25mph. The 3ton GS body was of steel with a tubular steel tilt frame and canvas tilt cover. Steel was used in preference to wood as it was lighter, less prone to rot or to be eaten by insects in tropical climates and eventually easier to repair. By 1944 welding equipment was common but carpenters were not. The QLD GS version had a single fuel tank mounted behind the cab. Many specialist versions including the QLT had twin tanks mounted on the chassis sides. This enabled longer bodies to be fitted. The GS version had a spare wheel mount on the offside of the fuel tank. By the end of the war versions were developed that were air transportable and tropicalised. Since these were intended for the Far East they were not much seen in Europe. The question is often asked ‘How did the 3ton 4 X 4 compare with the US GMC 6 X 6?’ Of course the comparison is not entirely fair since the US types had much more powerful engines. However in general the 4 X 4 had the better cross country performance. The 6 X 6 had a better grip on greasy, muddy or icy roads since it had ten tyres, the rear wheels all having dual tyres. More important at the time was probably the amount of scarce rubber needed, four tyres on the 4 X 4 against ten on the 6 X 6. Austin K5 3ton 4 X 4 GS Some 12,000 were built although not all were GS. The appearance and the roles were very similar to the Bedford QL. Some built as anti tank portees were converted to GS with soft top cabs. Austin K5 3ton 4 X 4 Recorder AA MkI. This was a house type body used in conjunction with AA radars. The interior had benches down both sides and was equipped with a Westex Recorder plus display screens. Westex were a manufacturer of high quality sound recording equipment but this was equipment for recording information from mortar locating radars. The Recorder vehicle took bearings from three Radar Mk3 MkII (F) and then plotted the position of enemy mortars. It is not clear if they were designed for this role or were previously used in plotting aircraft. Ford WOT6 3ton 4 X 4 GS Some 30,000 built but many were used for specialist roles. Very similar in every respect to the Bedford QL. Ford WOT6 3ton 4 X 4 DD Compressor. A WOT6 GS with the front half of the body sides removed and an air compressor fitted across the front part of the body. Six Compressed air cylinders could be filled at the same time. No tilt was fitted. These vehicles were used for filling cylinders to inflate the screens on DD tanks. Karrier K6 3ton 4 X 4 GS and GS with winch. Not many built. Many, if not all, were fitted with a winch and used for fitters and by engineers. The body had a flat floor and the winch was mounted under the body and was powered by a PTO from the transfer box. Maximum pull was 4½ tons. Albion FT 11 3ton 4 X 4 GS Only 1000 Albion FT11 were built and most were used for workshop lorries. They were fitted with 12.00 – 20 tyres all round instead of the more usual 10.50 - 20. Thorneycroft Nubian 3ton 4 X 4 GS Some 4000 built and they tended to be used in small, non combat units. CMP Chevrolet 3ton 4 X 4 GS. Considerable numbers of CMP Chevrolet were used. They seem to have been issued at one particular period and units which received them included 7th Armoured Division and Guards Armoured Division. The standard type had a No 13 cab and a 5F GS body. These were comparable with British 3ton 4 X 4 lorries having semi forward control cabs and steel GS bodies with tilts on tubular frames. Engines were larger and more powerful. Albion FT11 3ton 4 X 4 Machinery Flat Floor. See also Services/REME. Body No4 MkV was not quite flat floor since it had wheel arches. Sides could be folded down to the horizontal to provide extra space or double folded to make benches for working from the ground. There was a rear entrance with removable steps. The FT11 chassis had side mounted fuel tanks and the spare wheel was moved to under the chassis rear. The vehicle was used for the following roles: Machinery B Machinery H Machinery I Machinery I30 Machinery J Machinery M Machinery X Ford WOT6 3ton 4 X 4 Machinery Flat Floor. See also Services/REME. Body No4 MkVI was almost identical to that fitted to the Albion with only the fittings between body and chassis being different. The chassis was modified with side mounted fuel tanks repositioned spare wheel and repositioning the exhaust. The vehicle was used for the following roles: Machinery B Machinery H Machinery I30 Machinery J Machinery M Machinery X Ford WOT6 3ton 4 X 4 Machinery House Type. See also Services/REME. Body No8 was a flat floor except for wheel arches. There was an entrance at the rear and opening flaps at the front of the body sides. The chassis was modified with side mounted fuel tanks repositioned spare wheel and repositioning the exhaust. No generator was fitted. The vehicle was used for the following roles: Machinery D1 Machinery F Machinery Z Ford WOT6 3ton 4 X 4 Machinery 24Kw RE. This was a vehicle for the Royal Engineers and carried lathes, drills and a circular saw. Most of the equipment was intended to be used on the ground so that an overhead gantry was needed to unload it. The body was similar to the breakdown gantry fitted to 6 X 4 chassis but it had a flat floor and a 24Kw generator at the front of the body. Bedford QL 3ton 4 X 4 Kitchen The 3ton 4 X 4 kitchen was a Bedford QLD GS factory fitted with a kitchen set consisting of - petrol cookers on the offside with stowage for utensils above - a preparation surface on the nearside with insulated cooked food storage under. There were cupboards over. - A sink at the front with a water tank and storage over. These units were fastened to the tubular tilt frame. Bedford QL 3 ton 4 X 4 Observation Tower. Observation towers were manufactured in Belgium and fitted to QL chassis. The Canadian army used Diamond T chassis. The tower itself was a circular platform with a handrail supported on three telescopic legs. It was mounted at the rear of the vehicle so that when in use the base of the tower rested on the ground. The platform could be raised and lowered by hydraulic power. When in use the body was leveled and stabilised by jacks. For transport the entire tower could be hinged forward. A hydraulic tank was fitted on the body. It is not clear what unit held these vehicles but they were available for issue to artillery officers for observation duties. In low lying country they would clearly be useful, but the observer would be somewhat exposed. At least one was experimentally fitted with radar. Bedford QL 3ton 4 X 4 Office. Both QL GS lorries and QLT lorries were converted for use as offices but there was also a house type office body. This was very similar to that fitted to the Bedford OY, with desks, cupboards and tent extensions. Bedford QLC 3ton 4 X 4 Dental Laboratory. This vehicle carried a house type body containing work benches and equipment for the production of false teeth. There was an entrance at the rear and an entrance at either side near the front. All doors had a window and there were two other windows on each side. Ceiling lights and ventilators were fitted. This vehicle towed a dental trailer (see below). Bedford QLR 3ton 4 X 4 Mobile Operations Room. See also Others/TAF. The Mobile Operations Room body was used as Control Centre for Gun Defence Areas and by 2TAF as Operations Rooms. The body was a house type with a large flap on the nearside which was opened upwards when in use. There were tents on both sides of the vehicle, and sometimes over the rear door. A comprehensive array of wireless and telephone equipment was installed in the vehicle and offside tent. There were maps and displays in the nearside tent. Bedford QL 3 ton 4 X 4 Caravan Class II. Caravans were produced for Brigadiers and above. They were built on the longer QLT chassis and were divided into a sleeping compartment at the front and an office at the rear. There were also caravans converted from Bedford QL, Bedford QLT and CMP 3 ton 4 X 4 lorries which retained their canvas tilts. Bedford QLT 3ton 4 X 4 Troop Carrying Vehicle. Platoons for troop carrying in armoured divisions used the Bedford QLT. This was a Bedford QL which carried a 3foot 5inch longer body. This was made possible by - adding a chassis extension to the rear - replacing the fuel tank normally placed behind the cab with two smaller tanks, one either side of the chassis - moving the spare wheel to a carrier under the chassis rear end. There were double doors at the rear with steps at either side. There were also inward opening doors at the front on either side. There were simple bench seats down either side of the body. These were padded and could be folded flush with the sides. There were also padded backrests. Down the centre of the body was a single bench with backrests fitted to face alternately to the right and left. These seats could be removed and stowed under the body. There were folding seats fitted to the two front doors. This gave a capacity of 29 men in the body plus one in the cab. The body was fitted with a canvas tilt on a tubular frame and the sides could be rolled up. There was a bracket on the rear offside door on which a bicycle could be carried. The QLT could be used for carrying loads with the seats folded or removed as described above. The rear part of the body should not have been used for loads and factory fresh vehicles had a line and a stenciled notice ‘Load Forward of Line’.Some 2,500 QLT were built. In early contracts some vehicles were fitted with non standard wooden bodies. Bedford QL 3ton 4 X 4 Fire Tender. Superficially similar to the GS body. The fire tender had a wooden body with tilt. At the front there was a 200 gallon water tank with lockers on either side of it. There were four lockers with access from outside via vertically opening hatches. The rear part of the body carried a trailer pump and there was stowage down the sides for hoses, fire extinguishers, branches and filters. There were brackets under the tilt roof to carry ladders. An emergency hose reel was fitted between the cab and body and there was a pump powered by a power take off. A bell and a large sign bearing ‘Army Fire Service’ in red were fitted on the cab. The vehicle was intended for use in ammunition dumps and store depots. Bedford QL 3ton 4 X 4 AT Portee. The Bedford QL was fitted with a soft top cab and a flat platform body so that it could carry a 6pdr anti tank gun. This version was not used in this role in 21 Army Group but some were issued to AOP squadrons. The flat floor and hand winches made them suitable for transporting Auster AOP aircraft, with the wings removed. 3ton 4 X 4 Signals Vehicles. For full details of signals vehicles see Services/Signals. These were all built on the Bedford QL chassis. Most were on the QLD but some were on the QLC, with side mounted fuel tanks, and the longer QLT. Lorry Command Vehicles. Lorry Command Vehicles were introduced for use when an armoured vehicle was not required. They had similar roles and layout to the Armoured Command Vehicle. In 21 Army Group all were special bodies fitted to Bedford QLR chassis. The QLR was a standard QL but with electrical suppression. Lorry Command Vehicle HP Type A, 12HP/19 This was the earliest of the special LCV bodies. The basic body was used for a variety of signals roles but in the LCV HP role it used a three compartment body on a Bedford QLR chassis. The front compartment was for the generator and batteries, the middle compartment for wireless sets and the rear compartment for staff. There was also a LCV HP Type B which had cooled rectifiers for use in hot climates. Lorry Command Vehicle HP Types D and E, 53/12. These were an improved design which used the Body No2 with a two compartment layout. The front compartment was for the staff and was much roomier than the earlier types. There was a full width table with three seats mounted over the battery stowage. A fourth seat was placed at the front of the compartment and had a folding table fixed to the offside door. All had a tent at the rear and along the nearside. Lorry Command Vehicle LP Types A, 19HP/19 There were three different bodies which shared the same Type A designation. Signals were more concerned with the wireless equipment than the vehicle/body type. Like the LCV HP A the LCV LP A used a three compartment body on a Bedford QLR chassis. The front compartment was for the generator and batteries, the middle compartment for wireless sets and the rear compartment for staff. There was an almost identical LCV LP Type B which had the addition of cooled rectifiers for the main set. This was for use in hot climates. Lorry Command Vehicle LP Type A, 19HP/19. Maximum Staff The Maximum Staff version had only two compartments. The front compartment was for the signals equipment and personnel. A full width table had a No 19 HP set on the nearside and a No 19 set on the offside. The three operators seats were placed on top of the battery boxes. The rear compartment was the largest and had a full width staff table with three staff seats. There was a map table and a staff seat in the rear nearside corner and a cupboard in the rear offside corner. A tent could be erected at the rear. Lorry Command Vehicle LP Type A, 19HP/19. Body Type 2. This latest type used the same Body Type 2 as the LCV HP Type D and E. It had a two compartment layout, the front compartment being for the staff. There was a full width table with three seats mounted over the battery stowage. A fourth seat was placed at the front of the compartment and had a folding table fixed to the offside door. The rear compartment had a full width operators table with three seats. At the offside end was a 19 set. The main Wireless set No 19 HP was fitted in the rear nearside corner. Lorry 3ton Wireless HP The role of the Wireless HP vehicle was to provide medium to long range communication by voice and Morse. They differed from the Command Vehicle in that they did not have staff accommodation and no short range wireless set. They were found at Corps, Army, Army Group and Lines of Communication headquarters. Wireless HP Type C. 33 This vehicle used a body similar to that of the early Lorry Command Vehicle but with only two compartments. The centre and rear compartments were merged into one large wireless compartment. The chassis was the Bedford QLC with side mounted fuel tanks. Two generators were carried in the front compartment. The wireless compartment had the Wireless set No 33 situated in the centre of the bulkhead. An important part of the Wireless HP vehicles role was to be able to operate the main set remotely from a headquarters, signal office or similar. Wireless HP Types E and K. 12 HP These vehicles differed only in minor detail. Type E was the earliest type. Type K could use an external power source. Later War Establishment tables specify towed generators for some roles. Both were used the same body as the Type C but mounted on the Bedford QL chassis with fuel tank between the body and the cab. The differences from the Type C were - A more powerful Onan 3 KVa generator was used. This could not be manhandles but was on rails so that it could be slid out onto a platform. - Two batteries were moved from the front compartment to the rear offside of the wireless compartment. - The second R107 receiver was mounted on a shelf on the nearside so that it could be used in the vehicle to listen to a second frequency. It could still be removed for remote operation. - The main set was a more powerful Wireless set No 12 HP. This had a range of 1500 miles using Morse. Wireless HP Types G, H and J. 53 These types used the new Body 2 as used for the later LCV types. They differed only in the generators, which were progressively more powerful. Type G had an Onan 3KVa generator. Type H had a Coventry Climax 4 KVa generator. Type J had a Coventry Climax 6 KVa generator. The operator’s compartment had a full width table for three operators across the front. In the centre of the table was a R107 receiver. The main Wireless set No 53 was in the rear nearside corner and a generator was carried in the rear offside corner. 3ton 4 X 4 Signal Office. This was a house type body externally similar to Command Vehicles. This vehicle was manned by Royal Signals and provided the reception point for incoming signals through the Royal Signals system. It had telephones, usually secure Fullerphone, and teleprinters. It was also the point to which despatch riders reported and incoming wireless signals forms were sent. Similarly it was the point to which outgoing signals were given for delivery by whatever means was available. 3ton 4 X 4 Wireless I This was Bedford QLR wireless lorry with a modified Wireless House body. It was equipped with four R107 receivers and was used for monitoring divisional signals traffic to ensure that correct procedures were followed. An enemy could learn a great deal by listening in to wireless traffic. The British used a similar QLR for listening to enemy traffic and wireless intercepts of careless enemy transmissions helped greatly in cracking German codes, including Enigma. 3ton 4 X 4 Cipher Office This was another version of the standard QLR house body. It carried cipher machines and personnel for encoding and decoding messages for transmission by Fullerphone, Morse wireless or teleprinter. Terminal Equipment Vehicles. There were several types of Terminal Equipment Vehicle (TEV). All carried switchboards and teleprinters. These vehicles could not move rapidly since they had up to sixty telephone lines connected to them. To make things simpler there was usually a junction box mounted on a telegraph pole outside the vehicle. A number of wires were strung on the pole and connected to the junction box. A single connection then led from the junction box to the vehicle although there could be several poles and several junction boxes. There are photographs showing several vehicle parked together, surrounded and festooned by cables. 16 foot body on Bedford QLT chassis. A modified QLT troop carrier chassis was used to accommodate the longer body. The chassis had both fuel tanks mounted on the offside of the chassis so as to leave room for equipment lockers on the near side. The body was divided into two compartments. The front compartment carried switchboards for telephone lines while the rear compartment contained teleprinter equipment. There was a door at the rear and a door at the front nearside. A large hatch gave access for cables at the front offside. A tent could be erected on the nearside of the body to accommodate table, chairs and personnel. There were three different sets of equipment fitted into the body according to role. TEV Division. This body had two twenty line switchboards in the front compartment. In the rear compartment there were four Fullerphones and operators. TEV Corps. This body had two thirty line switchboards in the front compartment and two teleprinters in the rear compartment. TEV Army. Little is known about this version except that it carried three teleprinters. It may have relied on a second vehicle to carry switchboard equipment. Wireless House Body No 1 on a Bedford QLR chassis. The basic Wireless House No 1 body was used for a wide variety of roles. As a TEV vehicle it existed only in Corps and Divisional versions. These were much as for the QLT based versions but were more cramped. There was a front compartment and a rear compartment as for the QLT. There was no side tent on these early versions but a small tent over the rear entrance was added to later production. This body was also used for a Terminal carrier which carried only switchboard equipment. Wireless House Body Type 15 on a Bedford QLR chassis. This was a redesigned wireless house body with the compartments reversed. The smaller switchboard compartment was at the rear. The new arrangement was introduced to give more space for command versions and gave no advantage in TEV roles. Again there were Division and Corps versions. QLT with teleprinters Teleprinters were also carried in standard QLT Troop Carrying Vehicles. These could be removed from the vehicle and used inside a building. They also provided additional capacity and could operate through the switchboards of a TEV. 3ton 6 X 4 Lorries The 3ton 6 X 4 class of lorry was largely replaced by 3ton 4 X 4 versions but there remained a requirement for some specialist types. Austin K6 3ton 6 X 4 GS This vehicle had a steel well type body with tilt and tilt frame. There was stowage in the front end of the body for the spare wheel. This locker could be accessed from outside. Austin K6 3ton 6 X 4 Stores. This was also an RAOC vehicle having a standard GS body with the following modifications: wire mesh screens were fitted to the tilt frame to prevent pilfering, full length benches on both sides, storage bins under the benches, compartments for small items above the benches and a writing desk. Austin K6 3ton 6 X 4 Bacteriological Laboratory. A house type body used by the RAMC for bacteriological examination including the testing of food, water and medical specimens. The equipment carried were typical laboratory items such as microscope, autoclave, refrigerator, fume cupboard, sinks, balances and glass ware. Austin K6 3ton 6 X 4 Chemical Laboratory. This was very similar to the bacteriological laboratory but would have been used for the analysis of war gases and was equipped specifically for this. Austin K6 3ton 6 X 4 Breakdown Gantry. See also Services/REME/Recovery. A standard K6 chassis was modified by shortening the rear chassis, fitting heavier springs and adding a winch. The body was fitted with a gantry for lifting the damaged end of a vehicle for suspended towing, or for lifting heavy components such as engines. A comprehensive range of recovery equipment was carried. Austin K6 3ton 6 X 4 Crane. K6 chassis were fitted with a turntable and a Coles EMA MkVI Series II crane. This version had a self contained power source and did not use a power take off. Maximum lift was 3tons. Leyland Retriever 3ton 6 X 4 Breakdown Gantry. See also Services/REME/Recovery. Same body as fitted to the Austin K6. The Retriever remained in production until late in the war and the breakdown gantry version remained an important type. Leyland Retriever 3ton 6 X 4 Crane. The latest version of the Retriever crane was fitted with the Coles MkVII Series V. Power came from a power take off on the gearbox. Maximum lift was 3½ tons. Leyland Retriever 3ton 6 X 4 Pontoon. See also Services/RASC/Bridging Company. The MkV and MkVII Pontoons remained in service until the end of the war and needed a vehicle to transport them. The Retriever became the only vehicle used for this role, fitted with Body No5. This had four winch towers for raising and lowering pontoons. Two end sections or two centre sections for the Bailey Pontoon Bridge could be carried. Leyland Retriever 3ton 6 X 4 Machinery Flat Floor Type M. See also Services/REME. There was a high demand for the Type M Machinery Body. This was for Motor Maintenance. The Leyland version remained in service alongside the 4 X 4 versions. Leyland Retriever 3ton 6 X 4 Mobile Church. Two Mobile Churches were built on Leyland Retriever chassis for use in 21 Army Group. These were built in the UK by REME and ATS personnel and named the Motor Church of Saint George and the Motor Church of St Paul. Albion BY5 3ton 6 X 4 FBE. See also Services/RASC/Bridging Company. This was generally similar to the pontoon body and carried three folding boats which could be raised and lowered by four winch towers. Body No6 was only fitted to the Albion BY5 which was kept in production for this role. Dennis 3ton 4 X 2 Tipper. The Dennis tipper was a civilian type vehicle with a short wheelbase, side mounted fuel tanks and 32 X 6 tyres dual at the rear. It was an end tipper with a hydraulic ram operated by a power take off. The body had drop sides and a hinged tail board Thorneycroft WZ/TC4 3ton 4 X 2 Tipper. This was produced in small numbers and had a three way tipping body operated by a power take off. It was forward control and had 10.50 – 20 tyres. 4 Ton LORRIES Diamond T 968 4ton 6 X 6 cargo. A typical US truck with normal control, six wheel drive, dual rear wheels. A steel cargo body with folding seats down the sides and a tilt was fitted. All carried a front mounted winch and trailer brakes which made them useful for towing heavy trailers. Diamond T 969 4ton 6 X 6 Wrecker. See also Services/REME/Recovery. The same chassis as the cargo version but fitted with a wrecker body mounting Holmes twin boom wrecker equipment. This was a standard US type which was used in limited numbers in 21 Army Group. Ward La France M1, 4 ton 6 X 6 Wrecker. See also Services/REME/Recovery. Another standard US type but with a single telescopic jib at the rear. It carried three winches, one at the front for self recovery, one at the rear for heavy pulls and one for the jib. FWD HAR 4ton 4 X 4 Cargo. Unusual in being 4 X 4 this was used by the British army as a tractor for specialist equipment including radar AA No3 MkI, radar AA No4 MkI and smoke generators. 6 TON LORRIES Dennis Max MkII 6ton 4 X 2 GS. The 6ton 4 X 2 lorry was strictly obsolete since together with the 8cwt and 30cwt classes they were taken out of production and out of front line service. There remained a limited demand for the 6ton lorry however and an improved version of the Dennis Max was produced with new gearbox, changes to controls and instruments to facilitate waterproofing, a lower wheel arch body, a WD drawbar for trailers and a split cab with an AA ring in the roof. Other manufacturers of 6ton 4 X 2 lorries turned to producing 10 ton lorries instead. 6ton 4 X 2 – 2 Bedford OXC GS. These were 3ton 4 X 2 chassis adapted to tow 6ton semi trailers. They were normally used in docks and depots where they could be used with extra semi trailers, leaving a full one to be unloaded while they returned with an empty one. Trailers were by Scammell and a Scammell automatic coupling device was fitted to enable rapid change of trailer. Single 10.50 – 16 tyres were fitted all round. 6ton 4 X 2 – 2 Bedford OXC Platform. As the GS but with a flat platform body. 6ton 4 X 2 – 2 Bedford OXC Petrol. The tractor and couplings were as for the GS version and the tank semi trailer had a 1,750 gallon elliptical tank with two compartments. A tilt frame was supplied so that the vehicle could look like a normal GS version. The only modification to the tractor was the fitting of a fire screen behind the cab. These tankers were supplied in 1944. 6ton 4 X 2 – 2 Bedford OXC Golden Arrow 6ton 4 X 2 – 2 Bedford OXC Blue Train The Golden Arrow was a complete wireless station and consisted of two large semi trailers containing the transmitter and a receiver. There were also three ton lorries carrying aerials, and several mobile generators. The heart of the Golden Arrow was a commercial SWB 8E 4kw Short Wave Band wireless transmitter with a 2,500 mile range. In normal use it was linked to a High Speed Teleprinter which fed punched tapes through at many times the normal speed. The use of this relied on the intended recipients having the necessary equipment for recording and printing the messages sent in this form. Aerials were large arrays set up at some distance from the transmitter vehicle and fed by telephone line. Towing vehicle was the Bedford OXC. Blue Train was similar to Golden Arrow but with different, and as yet unidentified, wireless equipment. 6ton 4 X 4 - 2 Chevrolet Hollerith semi trailer. These were on the establishment of HQ 21 Army Group Rear Car Company RASC but were for the use of the ‘Q’ (AE) statistics section of Army Group Rear Headquarters. The Hollerith equipment was delivered from the USA in May 1944, mounted in three US 6 ton semi trailers towed by Chevrolet trucks. Two 15cwt trucks carried 9Kw generators to provide power. Semi trailer No1 carried machinery including a tabulator, a reproducer and two sorters. Semi trailer No2 carried filing cabinets and an interpreter machine. Semi trailer No3 carried three punches and two verifiers. The main task of the equipment was to maintain vehicle census records. ‘A’ vehicles were processed first, with the work beginning in June and finishing in August. ‘B’ vehicles were processed second with the work beginning in September in Brussels. The work was speeded up by the hiring of Belgian civilians supervised by three trained punch operators from the War Office. A variety of other tasks were undertaken from time to time including preparing Orders of Battle, recording honours and awards, and preparing medical statistics. 6 ton 4 X 4 - 2 One platoon in an armoured brigade company, plus some corps and artillery platoons had 6ton 4 X 4 -2 semi trailer lorries . They were also used on the lines of communication. They were attractive because of the saving in manpower. A driver could deliver twice the amount. 6ton 4 X 4 – 2 Bedford QL The Bedford 6ton was a normal Bedford QL chassis coupled to a semi trailer. The semi trailer was permanently attached by a coupling which allowed 20 degrees vertical articulation. This was sufficient for any road use but did not give a full cross country ability. Since the chassis was so long and the semi trailer was mounted over the rear wheels there was sufficient space for a 1 ton cargo body behind the cab. The semi trailer carried five tons. Modifications included using a QLC chassis with side mounted fuel tanks, more powerful brakes and a shortened chassis rear end. 6ton 4 X 4 – 2 CMP The CMP 6ton semi trailer was a short wheel base 3ton CMP type attached to a 6ton semi trailer. 6ton 4 X 4 - 2 FWD SU COE The FWD SU COE towed a similar 6ton trailer. Both types were supplied to the UK in considerable quantity but rarely appear in photographs. 6 ton 4 X 4 – 2 FWD HAR1. Similar to the SU COE but normal control. 6 ton 6 X 4 Thorneycroft Amazon Crane. There were long and short wheelbase versions with 12.75 - 20 tyres on the front and 13.50 – 20 on the rear. Crane was the Coles MkVII, Series 7. Maximum crane capacity was 5 tons. 10 TON LORRIES. 10 ton lorries were comparatively rare and pre war were made in only small numbers for civilian customers. Most in 21 Army Group were GS lorries for long distance haulage but there were a number of special purpose vehicles also. All used diesel engines. Leyland Hippo MkII 10 ton 6 X 4 GS. This was the most numerous of the 10 ton lorries and was introduced in 1944 and was being produced throughout the campaign so that they were all new. A thousand were in service by the end of the war. The MkII had single 13.50 tyres all round to give some cross country performance. The MkIIA had smaller 10.50 tyres on the front and twin 36 X 8 tyres on the rear to give a lower loading height. Wooden bodies with wheel arches were fitted, as was a canvas tilt and a tilt frame. Foden DG/6/12 10 ton 6 X 4 GS. Foden were manufacturers of heavy (for Britain) lorries. The DG/6/12 was similar in all respects to the Leyland Hippo. Foden DG/6/10 10 ton 6 X 4 GS This was an older model with 36 X 8 tyres and a flat floor GS body. This version was used more in workshops and depots than on long distance haulage. Foden DG/6/10 10 ton 6 X 4 platform This had a flat body without sides or tilt and was used to carry heavy workshop equipment. There were brackets at the rear for ramps. Tyres were 36 X 8. Foden DG/6/12 10 ton 6 X 4 Camera Lorry. This was a house type body used by Royal Engineers survey units for making photographic plates for map making. It was fitted with a 24 X 20 process camera with 25 inch lens, half tone screening equipment, water tanks and storage cupboards. There was a rear door with removable steps and a door on the offside to which light proof bellows could be attached to form a link with a dark room lorry. Foden DG/6/12 10 ton 6 X 4 Dark Room Lorry. This was similar to the Camera Lorry but had louvres for ventilation and for the engine powering a refrigeration plant. It had a door in the rear and on the nearside by which it could be connected by the light proof bellows with the camera lorry. Negatives were developed for use in making plates for printing. Foden DG/6/12 10 ton 6 X 4 Photo Mechanical. This formed part of the same unit as the above two vehicles but was of a different design. It had a flat floor and folding sides divided along the centre. The top half opened upward and the lower half folded downwards to provide a large flat working space. Side panels with windows were fitted. This vehicle carried equipment for etching zinc plates from the developed negatives. Foden DG/6/12 10 ton 6 X 4 Printing. A Mobile Printing Section used a set of four vehicles similar to the Photo Mechanical lorry. There were four different loads to provide a full printing works capable of producing the huge volume of printed material required by an army group. - No1. Two printing presses. - No2. Monotype, composition and super casters for setting up the type. - No3. Imposing stone, type cases and a proof press. - No4. Finishing equipment including a folding press, stitcher and guillotine. NOTE: The camera, dark room, photo mechanical and printing lorries replaced the smaller Leyland Retriever and were themselves replaced by Leyland Hippo. Mack NR9 10 ton 6 X 4. The NR9 was supplied to Britain from the US. It was a normal control lorry with an open cab. Body was a flat floor with tilt and of typical US design. Tyres were 11.00 – 24 at the front and single 13.50 at the rear. Engines were diesel. Being non standard these lorries were used in base areas and docks. Mack NR14 10 ton 6 X 4. The NR14 was the last of the line of NR model lorries supplied to Britain. Tyres were 11.00 – 24 all round with dual rear wheels. Crane, Truck Mounted, 10ton 6 X 6 M2. This mobile crane was supplied by the US as part of the Super Heavy Artillery 8” gun and 240mm howitzer system. It towed a trailer carrying the clamshell excavator. As a crane it lifted the carriage and barrel loads from the transporters and emplaced them. As a clamshell excavator it dug the pit which was needed to allow the breech to recoil at high elevation, and to accommodate the recoil spades. HEAVY TRANSPORTERS Albion CX24 15ton GS. The Albion CX24 was designed as a 20ton tank transporter but was found inadequate for the task and derated to 15tons. A considerable number had been ordered and built so they were available for use by the RASC for moving heavy and awkward loads. Royal Signals also used some for carrying heavy cable drums. White Ruxtall 922 18 ton 6 X 4. These vehicles were originally ordered by France but were taken by Britain after France fell. Most were fitted with tank transporters but some survived to be used as heavy GS vehicles in 21 Army Group. They were used for heavy loads much as the Albion above. It is possible that other vehicles in this class also survived. Some at least seem to have been used by Royal Engineers. Federal 604 20 ton semi trailer transporter. Originally a tank transporter the Federal 604 was used for heavy engineer equipment in NW Europe. The tractor was a normal control 6 X 4 diesel. A winch was fitted behind the cab Tyres were 10.00 -20, dual on the rear. The trailer was a goose neck design giving a low loading platform. There were eight wheels on a single axle, each with 10.00 – 15 tyres. Scammell 30 ton semi trailer transporter. See also Services/REME/Recovery. The Scammell tank transporters were designed for tank recovery work. They were built on a longer chassis version of the Pioneer which was used for Heavy Recovery Tractor and Heavy Artillery Tractor. The cab had an extension at the rear to hold four men, the crew of the casualty. The engine and winch were as for the other Scammells. The semi trailer had four wheels with large single tyres. The front of the trailer had a permanently fitted snatchblock and the winch cable was permanently attached to it in normal circumstances. Although rated at 30 tons the trailers regularly carried 40 ton Churchill tanks. The advantages of the Scammell as a Recovery Tank Transporter were the excellent cross country performance which the suspension and large single tyres gave, and the Gardner diesel engine which gave good power at low revolutions. Diamond T 30 ton semi trailer transporter. See also Services/REME/Recovery. There were never enough Scammell transporters so the Diamond T tractor was also used with a semi trailers similar to those of the Scammell. 200 conversions were ordered and were designed by Shelvoke and Drewry. Diamond T 980/981 Tank Transporter. Before 1939 the Tank Transporter hardly existed. Tanks were moved by rail and then moved from railhead on their tracks. The few tank transporters that existed were used for tank recovery. It was soon realised that tank transporters would be needed in considerable numbers. The Scammell Pioneer was the obvious choice but Scammell were already working to capacity on Heavy Artillery Tractors and Breakdown Tractors. Pre war transport in Britain was largely by rail with distribution by light horse or motor vans. There had been no need and no incentive to develop large vehicles or large engines. Indeed the system of taxing vehicles by engine size encouraged the use of small engines. Thus Britain looked to the USA to provide heavier transporters. Some Mack and White trucks were used as transporters for the lighter tanks but with 40 ton tanks on the way something bigger was needed. In 1940 the British Purchasing Commission in the USA ordered a large transporter from Diamond T. The design was a compromise between what the British Army wanted and what could be built from readily available existing parts. Diamond T designed a strong simple chassis and added a powerful Hercules diesel engine, suspension and drive parts from various manufacturers, added a bonnet and cab plus a simple steel ballast body. Thus was born the classic Diamond T 980/981 Tractor unit. The initial contract was for 702 X Model 980 133 X Model 981 The only difference being that the 981 had pulleys and fairleads to allow the winch cable to be led forward as well as to the rear. A longer cable was also provided. This was intended for the self recovery of the tractor The first contract was delivered in 1941 and 1942. Those destined for N Africa were delivered in Coronado Tan while those delivered to the UK were Khaki Green. A second order for 1000 Model 980 was delivered in 1942. 677 Model 980 were also delivered to Canada. With the USA now a combatant further orders were supplied under Lend Lease under US Army contracts and it is difficult to find exactly how many were delivered to the UK. However 1,835 were delivered under the initial direct contracts and it seems that some 2,250 were delivered altogether. Others went to various Commonwealth forces. Diamond T tractors towed three different types of trailer. A 40 ton trailer had been designed in the UK and these were built as Trailer 40 ton MkI. The British Purchasing Commission ordered a similar, but improved trailer from Rodgers. This was rated at 45 tons, but US tons are lighter so it was still a 40ton trailer. Some of the improvements made by Rodgers were incorporated in the British built Trailer 40ton MkII. The most significant improvement was the elimination of outer guide rails which allowed wider tanks to be carried. Initially the Rodgers trailers went to N Africa and the 40 ton MkI to the UK. In 21 Army Group could be found Model 980 and 981 with either Rodgers or 40 ton MkII trailers. Some later Diamond T supplied under Lend Lease had open cabs. The 40 ton MkI trailer was relegated to other roles and usually towed by other types of tractor. For road use the Diamond T 980/981 performed very well, but the double rear wheels and lack of front wheel drive limited its use to roads. The Rodgers trailers were easy to load and unload but the small tyres used were prone to blow outs and they could overturn. The British MkII trailer was better in this respect, but not immune. Tank Transporter Companies had three platoons, each of thirty task vehicles. A company could move an armoured regiment. Three companies were usually combined to make a column capable of transporting an armoured brigade. The introduction of such heavy vehicles, up to 70 tons when loaded, caused problems with bridges. At the start of the war the military bridge was designed to carry the heaviest items then in service- heavy artillery at about 18 tons. Tanks soon needed bridges of 24 ton, then 30 tons and finally 40 tons. Moving 70 ton vehicles meant careful planning of routes to ensure that bridges, both military and civilian could take them. CARAVANS Apart from the Class II caravans described above there were three special caravans for the C in C. See also Headquarters/21 Army Group. Leyland Retriever 3ton 6 X 4 with Office Caravan Body. This was the first to be taken into use. It was an Italian body mounted on a Leyland Retriever 6 X 4 3ton chassis. It had been captured, converted and used by Montgomery’s predecessor. In NW Europe it was used as an office. Mack NR 10ton 6 X 4 with Sleeping Caravan Body. This was also a captured Italian body but mounted on a 10ton 6 X 4 Mack NR chassis. This was used in Italy before being refurbished for NW Europe. It was used as a sleeping caravan and had a fold down bed, a bath, a shower and wardrobe space. Fordson 7V with Map Caravan Body. This was purpose built for Montgomery. It was a semi trailer with ample wall space for maps, and had two small desks at the front. AMPHIBIANS Amphibians had census numbers prefixed P. Ford GPA ¼ ton 4 X 4 Aphibian. Based on the jeep in much the same way the DUKW was based on a 2½ ton truck. A boat body was built round the Jeep chassis. In the water propulsion was by a propeller driven by a power take off and steering was by a rudder. There were four seats, the rear two folding down to provide cargo space. Truck 10cwt Tracked GS, Weasel. M29. This was a US built light tracked vehicle intended for use over snow or swamp where very low ground pressure is required. The engine is at front right hand side with the driver alongside it on the left. The rear can be configured with either one seat and a cargo compartment, or with three seats. A removable windscreen, canvas tilt and side curtains are provided, as is a heater. Tracks are rubber belts with steel reinforcement and steel grousers. Steering is by levers. In this basic form the Weasel is amphibious but with a very low freeboard. 10cwt Tracked amphibian GS, Weasel. M29C. This is a simple conversion of the M29 with a bow flotation cell, stern floatation cell and side sponsons. Steering in the water was by rudder and propulsion relied on the tracks. It was still suitable only for slow moving and calm water. 2½ ton 6 X 6 Amphibian. GMC DUKW 353. The DUKW was one of the relatively simple adaptations that the Americans were good at. By simply taking a GMC 2 ½ ton truck chassis and building a boat body round it they produced a vehicle which performed its task very well. The chassis was not the most common 6 X 6 but a forward control version which both suited the purpose and was less in demand for cargo trucks. With a cargo body to take 2 ½ tons of cargo and a propeller to move it through the water it served in all theatres later in the war and continued in service for many years after the war. Like much specialised equipment the DUKW was often misused when its limitations were not appreciated by commanders. The DUKW was ideal for ferrying loads from offshore shipping and driving it through the surf and up onto dry land. At that point it should have been unloaded and cargo forwarded by conventional GS lorries. On shore it was large and un manoeuvrable so that any attempt to short circuit the delivery process by sending DUKWs inland defeated the object by blocking roads and causing delays. Apart from this it also took the DUKW away from the task it was best at, unloading shipping. The British used DUKWs in the Torch landings in N Africa, and again in Sicily and Italy. In 21 Army Group the DUKWs were first used on the Normandy beaches. In spite of bad weather they were soon delivering 10,000 tons a day and would eventually land more tonnage than the Mulberry harbours. Eleven DUKW companies, including one equipped with DUKW fitted for casualty evacuation, were deployed in Normandy but this was reduced to two after the breakout. The companies reverted to normal GT companies using 3ton lorries. DUKWs were again used in the Scheldt Estuary and in the Rhine Crossing. 4 ton 8 X 8 Amphibian, Terrapin. The Terrapin was an unusual 8 X 8 amphibious vehicle. It was designed from scratch rather than being based on an existing truck as was the US DUKW. It was powered by two Ford V8 engines situated in the centre of the vehicle. Only the centre four wheels were driven and in normal use only these four were in contact with the ground. In soft going the rear wheels also made contact. The front wheels were set higher and were only used when climbing banks. There were no springs, the only shock absorption being provided by large section, low pressure tyres. Steering on land was by throttling back the engine on the side to which one wanted to turn. In the water propulsion was by two propellers, each driven by one engine. Steering was normally by a rudder operated by a cable from the steering wheel. A tiller was provided as back up and sharp turns could be made by throttling back one engine. Since the engines and driving positions were central there were two cargo holds, one in front and one behind. Four tons could be carried at a maximum speed of 15mph on land and 5mph on water. TRACTORS. Tractors were classified separately and had census numbers prefixed H. Strictly speaking most semi trailer tractors were prefixed H but logically they fit better with lorries. Most tractors were used by the artillery but there was also considerable demand from the Royal Engineers to tow heavy equipment trailers, and from REME for recovery roles. Morris C8 4 X 4 Field Artillery Tractor. See also Arms/Artillery/Field Artillery. All British Army field artillery tractors were 4 X 4 ‘Quads’. There were several variants of which the most common was the Morris C8. The most numerous Morris Quad was the MkIII which was introduced in 1941. The Mk numbers relate to he chassis and MkIII had 10.50 tyres, a modified transfer box enabling front wheel drive to be disengaged and many small changes. Most of the MkIII vehicle had the beetle backed body with an opening in the roof. Later versions had a MkV body which was a square, open topped body with a canvas tilt. While all the earliest vehicles to land in France were late production and low mileage, some older vehicles including some early ones rebuilt to MkIII standard were used later. Morris C8AT 4 X 4. See also Arms/Artillery/AT Artillery. The Morris C8AT tractor came in two slightly different versions. On was based on the 2pdr portee and the other on the C8P Predictor. Both were redundant, the portee because the 2pdr was redundant and the predictor because the Light AA predictor it carried proved ineffective. There were nearly 4000 portees and 500 predictors, many unissued, so there was no reason to develop another tractor.The C8s had new bodies fitted but kept the original cabs. No winch was fitted. Morris C8 Field Artillery tractor with Body No 5. See also Arms/Artillery/Field Artillery. Late in the campaign some of the new Morris C8 Field Artillery Tractors with body No5 were issued to towed 17pdr and 25 pdr units. The No5 body had an open top and alternative stowage for 25pdr and 17pdr ammunition. The change from one to the other was simply a matter of moving partitions and took only minutes. Morris C9 Self Propelled 40mm Bofors. See also Arms/Artillery/AA Artillery The Morris C9 was based on the Morris C8 Field Artillery tractor. As a self propelled mount for the Bofors gun it had a number of modifications including a lengthened chassis, a power take off, winch deleted and a wide, four man cab. The gun could not be fired on the move. In action the seats and the steering wheel folded to allow a full 360 degree traverse with a 1½ degree depression. The vehicle carried 129 rounds of ammunition and a spare barrel. CMP 4 X 4 Ford and Chevrolet Field Artillery Tractor. See also Arms/Artillery/Field Artillery. Many CMP Quads were in service with the British as well as the Canadian Army. These were built by Ford and Chevrolet to the same specifications as the British Quads. Again the latest versions were open topped, Body 7B3, versions but the majority were earlier ones with beetle backed bodies 7B1 or 7B2. These two differed only in the provision of a spare wheel carrier. The even earlier 7A2 body could also be found. This had the earlier No12 cab and front end but was otherwise similar. AEC Matador 4 X 4 Medium Artillery Tractor. See also Arms/Artillery/Field Artillery. The AEC Matador was a diesel engined 4 X 4 tractor with a winch and a wooden body. The body was a flat floor with doors at the front and a tailgate at the rear. There were two wooden benches across the front of the body, both facing forward. There was a folding seat at the nearside of each row. Shells were stowed in the centre of the body, charges were stored to the sides. FWD SU COE 4 X 4 Medium Artillery Tractor. See also Arms/Artillery/Field Artillery. Some FWD SU COE were purchased from the USA in chassis and cab form and fitted with Medium Artillery Tractor bodies as above. They were similar in all respects to the Matador but had a petrol engine. FWD SU SU COE 4 X 4 Cargo Although classed as cargo these vehicles were used as tractors for engineer plant. Cab and chassis were as for the MAT but without a winch. The body was a standard US cargo pattern. Mack NM 6 X 6. See also Arms/Artillery/Field Artillery. The Mack NM was supplied under Lend lease. It was a 6 X 6 tractor with a cargo body. Crew sat along the sides and ammunition was stowed in the centre of the body. Few were used in NW Europe and those seem to have been used by British units serving with the Canadian Army. These were probably units which transferred from Italy in early 1945. It was also used as a tractor for engineer plant and towing redundant 40 ton trailers for special loads. Mack NO Heavy Artillery Tractor. See also Arms/Artillery/Field Artillery. The US 155mm guns were supplied with the Mack NO 7.5 ton tractor. This was a powerful 6 X 6 truck with dual rear wheels and tyres, and an impressive ground clearance. The Mack NO had no special stowage in the body. The crew sat on fold down seats along each side. Shells, cartridges and fuses were stowed down the centre of the body. Kit was stowed wherever there was space. There was a frame and a chain hoist at the rear which was intended for lifting the gun trail. Scammell Pioneer Heavy Artillery Tractor. See also Arms/Artillery/Field Artillery. The Scammel Pioneer was the preferred heavy artillery tractor for most of the war. It had a powerful diesel engine, a superb suspension and was very reliable. There were never enough of them and the chassis were also required for Heavy Breakdown Tractors and Tank Recovery Transporters. They towed earlier 7.2” guns but not the MkVI version on US carriage. They were used as ammunition carriers in heavy artillery regiments. They had a chain hoist for unloading shells which were heavy Scammell Pioneer Heavy Breakdown Tractor. See also Services/REME/Recovery. The SV2S version, which included all but the first 50 vehicles, had a wooden body with a sliding jib. The jib could be retracted for travelling or extended for lifting and suspended towing. The weight limit was 3 tons although when fully extended the limit was reduced to two tons. The body had stowage boxes down each side and a space in the centre for the jib. A Scammell was capable of recovering any tank in service in 21 Army Group, including the 40 ton Churchill. In fact the Scammell was the main means of recovering armoured fighting vehicles, the Armoured Recovery Vehicles MkII, which were equipped to much the same standard, did not appear until the very end of the war. There were sprung drawbars with tow hooks front and rear. The front drawbar was hinged so that the starting handle could be used. Mack LMSW Heavy Breakdown Tractor. See also Services/REME/Recovery. The Scammell Heavy Recovery Tractor was never available in sufficient numbers and the Mack LMSW was ordered by the WD as a substitute. It was a sturdy 6 X 4 chassis with a good ground clearance for cross country work. Its engine was a 10 litre petrol unit. For the recovery role it was fitted with a steel body generally similar in layout to the Scammell with stowage boxes down each side and a well in the centre for the lifting gear. The lifting gear itself was a Gar Wood sliding jib which was similar in operation to that of the Scammell. WD 14.00 – 20 tyres were fitted, single all round. There were two power winches mounted between the body and the cab. One winch was for winching to the rear while the other was for lifting via the jib. Albion CX22 6 X 4 Heavy Artillery Tractor. See also Arms/Artillery/Field Artillery. The Albion CX 22 was introduced to supplement the Scammell Pioneer. It was a 6 X 4 but without the Scammell’s cross country ability. Some CX22 were used to tow the British 7.2” howitzer on US carriage. It had a crew compartment at the front, although the space was shared with the winch compartment. Shells could be loaded or unloaded using a detachable ramp together with a winch cable which ran through the body. There was no chain hoist. Shells and cartridges could be stowed on the side shelves. Bedford QLB Bofors LAA Tractor. See also Arms/Artillery /AA Artillery The Bedford QLB was based on the Bedford QL chassis but had several modifications. The most important was that it was fitted with a chassis winch powered by a power take off. The winch could be used for recovering the Bofors gun from its emplaced position, or the winch cable could be led forward for self recovery. There was a crew compartment at the front of the body, with more crew accommodation at the rear. There were lockers for ammunition and gun equipment. A spare barrel was carried in a box and wheel scotches carried at the rear. Tractor, High Speed, 38ton M6. See also Arms/Artillery/Field Artillery This was the US supplied tractor for the Super Heavy Artillery 8” and 240mm. In fact the high speed was to distinguish it from agricultural and construction type tractors. Maximum speed was 21 mph. It was a powerful tractor, using two Waukesha 6 cylinder petrol engines of 817 cubic inches capacity each. Fuel consumption was 0.3 miles per gallon. It carried a crew of eleven and fourteen rounds of ammunition. TRAILERS Trailers are not often mentioned but they were used in increasing numbers and in a wide range of roles. Trailers had census numbers prefixed X. Trailer 10cwt 2 wheeled Lightweight GS The 10cwt Lightweight trailer was intended to be towed by a Jeep. The US supplied some lightweight trailers but this one was designed and built in he UK Trailer 10cwt 2 wheeled GS No1 The 10cwt GS trailer was intended for towing by 15 cwt trucks. It had fixed sides, a drop tailboard and a canvas cover. There were supporting legs front and rear. Tyres could be 5.00 – 16 on early models and 5.75 – 16 on later models. Trailer 10cwt 2 wheeled GS No2 Generally similar to the No1 but with higher sides, 6.00 – 15 tyres and fitted with a universal tow eye to enable it to be towed by any vehicles. Trailer 10cwt 2 wheeled Mortar The 10cwt Mortar trailer was towed by a Loyd Carrier and was used for the 4.2” mortar. There were fittings in the trailer for either - a 4.2” mortar with base plate and 22 round of ammunition - 44 round of ammunition. Trailer 15cwt 2 wheeled Load Carrying A heavier trailer with stronger springs and 9.00 – 20 tyres. It had a wooden body with drop tailboard and a tarpaulin. There were adjustable supporting legs front and rear. Trailer 15cwt 2 wheeled Pole Carrying A long chassis with 9.00 – 20 tyres was fitted with a 16 foot wooden body. This had fixed front and sides and a detachable tailboard. There was a locker for insulators etc over the rear end. Supporting legs, one at the front and two at the rear were jack screw type. Used for carrying telegraph poles (though not the large civilian types) to support telephone lines. Trailer 15cwt 2 wheeled Water 180 gallons This carried a 180 gallon water tank plus pumps, filters, hoses for collecting water from streams etc, filtering and then transporting it. Tyres were 9.00 – 20 and supporting legs were fitted front and rear. Trailer 2 wheeled Dental This was a civilian type caravan with 6.50 – 17 tyres. The body was 14 foot long and divided into reception, office and surgery compartments. The surgery was fitted with a dental chair and equipment. A carrier at the front carried a tent and poles to provide extra space. Four scissor type jacks were fitted, one at each corner. Trailer 2 wheeled 22Kw Generating Set. A widely used generator providing power for bakeries and laundries, as well as lighting for headquarters and power for radars. The chassis was unsprung and fitted with 10.50 – 20 tyres and supporting jacks front and rear. The engine was a Lister 4 cylinder diesel and the generator was a Maudsley 22 Kw, 100 volt DC with a Lister switchboard. A tubular frame with canvas tilt and side curtains was fitted. Trailer 1 ton 2 wheeled GS No5 MkIA steel body with fixed sides, drop tailgate and canvas cover. There are no supporting legs but the tailgate can be locked down in the vertical position to give support and a castor wheel is fitted to the drawbar. Tyres are 9.00 – 13. Trailer 1 ton 2 wheeled Water 180 gallons A similar body, tank and equipment to the 15cwt water trailer is fitted to the later 1 ton trailer chassis. Tyres are 7.50 – 20 and supporting legs are fitted. Trailer 1 ton 2 wheeled Water Purification Water purification equipment is fitted to the 1 ton trailer chassis with tyres as for the water tank. Trailer 1 ton 2 wheeled Steriliser Steriliser equipment is fitted to the 1ton trailer chassis. Trailer 1 ton 2 wheeled Gas Welding A standard 1 ton trailer is equipped with fittings for oxygen and acetylene cylinders, welding equipment and a welding table. Support legs are fitted. Trailer 1 ton AA Command Post A drop frame chassis with 9.00 – 13 tyres is fitted with a flat platform body 10 foot long and 4 foot 4½ inches wide. A canopy can be erected to envelop the trailer all round to provide a working space for plotting aircraft movement. Trailer 1 ton 2 wheeled Pigeon Loft A 1 ton trailer chassis with 7.50 – 20 tyres and support legs. A loft body for 60 birds plus stores and equipment is fitted. Trailer 2 ton 4 wheeled GS dropside A turntable trailer with detachable dropsides, a drop tailboard and tarpaulin. Tyres were 9.00 – 13. Trailer 2 ton 4 wheeled GS open (Canadian) A turntable trailer with an all steel body with fixed sides, a drop tailboard and tarpaulin instead of a tilt. Tyres were 9.00 – 16. Trailer 2 ton 4 wheeled Beam Wireless This trailer was for Wireless No 10. It had turntable steering 32 X 6 tyres and four supporting jacks. Trailer 3 ton 2 wheeled Cable Drum A simple design with a sprung axle and a long drawbar and a folding leg at the front. It could carry any of a variety of cable drums on trunions. Trailer 4 ton 4 wheeled Bakery Machinery. See also Services/RASC/Non transport units. The Mobile Bakery Machinery Trailer carried equipment based on that used in commercial bakeries at the time. It mixed the dough and divided it into two pound pieces. Trailer 4 ton 4 wheeled Bakery Dough. See also Services/RASC/Non transport units. The Bakery Dough Trailer carried four troughs in which the dough was left to rise. Trailer 4 ton 4 wheeled Bakery Oven. See also Services/RASC/Non transport units. The Bread Oven trailer had an oil fired furnace heating a two tiered oven which could hold 288 two pound loaves, in 48 pans each holding six loaves. Trailer 4 ton 4 wheeled AOD with Bins An ordnance store trailer with bins for storing smaller items. Trailer 4 ton 4 wheeled AOD Open with Davit An ordnance store trailer for carrying larger items and a davit for lifting them. Trailer 5 ton 4 wheeled GS A turntable trailer with 10.50 – 13 tyres. The body was a flat platform with a fixed front board. Removable stanchions and chains were fitted down each side. Trailer 5 ton 4 wheeled Cargo A US built turntable trailer with 7.50 – 20 tyres, twin all round. The body had removable wooden sides and a drop tailboard. A tarpaulin was supplied. Trailer 5 ton 4 wheeled Smoke Generator (Haslar) A conventional trailer for carrying Haslar smoke generators. Trailer 5 ton 4 wheeled Smoke Generator (Esso) A US trailer with four wheels close together in the centre. This carried Esso smoke generators. Trailer 5 ton 4 wheeled Laundry Washer, Trailer type A. See also Services/Others/RAOC. This was a washing trailer which carried rotary washing machine, a hydro extractor (spin dryer), and a soap boiler. Trailer 5 ton 4 wheeled Laundry Boiler, Trailer Type D. See also Services/Others/RAOC. This was a trailer to provide hot water and hot air. Trailer 5 ton 4 wheeled Laundry Dryer, Trailer Type C. See also Services/Others/RAOC. This was the drying trailer and carried a continuous drying machine. Trailer 5 ton 4 wheeled Laundry CCS. See also Services/Others/RAOC. This was an all in one trailer providing laundry for casualty clearing stations. Trailer 5 ton 4 wheeled Pontoon 50/60 Class. See also Services/RASC/Bridging Company. This was a specially designed trailer for transporting and launching 50/60 class pontoons. Tyres were 9.00 – 20, twins all round. The chassis was a single central frame member which could be retracted to reduce the wheelbase from 18 foot to 12 foot 6 inches when not loaded. A launching frame on rollers carried the pontoon. Trailer 2 ton 4 wheeled 150mm Projector (Searchlight) This carried a 150mm searchlight. Tyres were 9.00 – 16 and there were three supporting legs. Trailer 3 ton 4 wheeled 150mm Projector (Searchlight) with radar. This heavier trailer carried the 150mm searchlight, plus its radar, IFF and control panel. It had a full cross country performance. Tyres were 10.50 – 16 and 3 levelling jacks were provided. Trailer 5ton 4 wheeled Radar AA No3 Mk1I A turntable trailer with 36 X 8 tyres, twin at the rear. There were three supporting jacks, one at the centre rear and two on folding arms at the front. A steel cabin has a rotor unit with 360 degree rotation. Two parabaloid aerials are mounted on the rotor and these can be tilted. A platform at the front carries a generating set. Originally a 10cm set for HAA fire control these sets were also used for mortar location and tracking meteorological balloons. Trailer 5ton 4 wheeled Radar AA No4 MkIII Similar trailer and body to above but with a rotating radar aerial for surveillance and target acquisition. Trailer 5ton 4 wheeled Radar AA No1 MkII An Ackermann steering trailer with 9.00 – 20 tyres. There are four supporting jacks on folding arms. Trailer 5ton 4 wheeled Radar AA No4 MkV. This was a US built trailer containing the US SCR 584 radar. In British service it used a detachable dolly with turntable. Rear wheels were dual. Trailer 6 ton Freuhof Carriage of Tracks A low loading, flat platform trailer with a gooseneck over the turntable. Tyres were 9.00 – 20 twins all round. Trailer 6 ton Jahn Carriage of Tracks Similar in all respects to the Freuhof trailer. Trailer 7 ½ ton 6 wheeled Light Recovery. See also Services/REME/Recovery. The Light Recovery Trailer was built by Crane and could be towed by any of the wheeled recovery lorries or tractors. The chassis was a tube with beams supporting the deck. Two tracks with adjustable chocks carried the casualty. In the centre was a wooden floor to carry the ramps and other equipment. There were jacks at the rear to support the trailer body when loading and unloading. A hand winch was fitted at the front and there were guide rollers to allow the towing vehicles winch to be used for loading. Suspension was in the form of torsion bars on the rear wheels. Trailer 18 ton 4 twin wheeled Low Loader for RB excavator. A simple platform body has wooden runners along the side to take the excavator tracks. For loading the rear must be lowered and the rear axle removed. Tyres were 10.50 – 20 twins all round. Trailer 18 ton 8 wheeled Low Loader, Carrimore Identical to the 20 ton 8 wheeled Crane model below except it has 11.25 - 20 tyres and cannot be loaded from the side. Trailer 20 ton 8 twin wheeled Low Loader, Crane A flat platform trailer with a straight frame, turntable steering and 36 X 8 tyres. It shares many components with the 40 ton trailers. Trailer 20 ton 8 wheeled Low Loader, Crane. A gooseneck design with turntable steering and eight wheels with 13.50 – 20 tyres. Loading is by jacking up the rear, removing the rear axles and lowering the frame to the ground. Side loading is possible without removing the rear axles. Designed for the carriage of road making machinery. Trailer 20 ton 16 wheeled Low Loader, Multiwheeler This trailer had a very low gooseneck over twin turntables using Ackermann steering. Wheels were arranged in sets of four wheels with 29 X 8 tyres. A flat platform body with wooden planking had chock rails down the sides. Designed for the carriage of road making machinery. Trailer 40 ton 24 wheeled, Rogers Trailer 40 ton 24 wheeled MkI Trailer 40 ton 24 wheeled MkII Diamond T tractors towed three different types of trailer. A 40 ton trailer had been designed in the UK and these were built as Trailer 40 ton MkI. The British Purchasing Commission ordered a similar, but improved trailer from Rodgers. This was rated at 45 US tons, or 40 long tons. Some of the improvements made by Rodgers were incorporated in the British built Trailer 40ton MkII. The most significant improvement was the elimination of outer guide rails which allowed wider tanks to be carried. Initially the Rodgers trailers went to N Africa and the 40 ton MkI to the UK. In 21 Army Group could be found Model 980 and 981 with either Rodgers or 40 ton MkII trailers. The 40 ton MkI trailer was relegated to other roles and usually towed by other types of tractor. These included: Trailer 20 ton 24 wheeled Cargo Carrier. 40 ton MkI trailers had a flat wooden floor and pierced steel track welded to the sides to allow cargo, in particular ammunition, to be carried. Trailer 30 ton 24 wheeled Carriage of Rails 40 ton MkI trailers had timber baulks fitted across the body to carry lengths of rail. Trailer 45 ton tracked recovery Designed to tow Churchill tanks across country. Speed was only 5mph. There was no springing so life on hard surfaces was short and the trailer needed carrying on a wheeled trailer. The trailer was carried on four Orolo track units and was a flat platform with chocks and ramps. A winch and an armoured compartment for the operator were at the front. Trailer 80ton 40 wheeled This trailer had been developed to carry the heavy Tortoise tank, which did not enter service. The trailer was carried on two separate bogies and large tyres giving a high loading height. The bed of the trailer was designed to be tilted by using hydraulic rams at the front end. This enabled heavy vehicles to be loaded without long ramps. This heavy trailer and load needed two Diamond T 980 tractors fitted with towing frames so that they could be linked. It was only used to recover heavy German Tiger and King Tiger tanks and transport them to the UK. Trailer 4 wheeled Motor Boat Carrying. See also Services/RASC/Bridging Company. A straight frame trailer on 10.50 – 13 tyres. A platform with rollers carried the motor boat and the platform itself could be extended and tilted to launch the boat. Trailer 4 wheeled FBE. See also Services/RASC/Bridging Company. A turntable trailer on 9.00 – 20 tyres. A tubular steel framework carried three folding boats. This trailer was no longer used to carry folding boats for FBE bridging but was used to carry light rafts.