This may be long but is a shortened rundown of events so I’ve probably left a lot out. I use archaeological sources rather than Biblical and it is my own research from many sources. I include some history of the Crusades due to their significance and to get some military history into the topic ;-) I hope you find it interesting. Please note that any conclusions are mine and therefore I accept I could be wrong. The "Holy Land" was originally occupied by the Philistines who are thought to have emigrated from Greece in around 1300BC and was called Filistria which is the name it continued to be known as until recently. The Arab name for these people was and still is Filisteens or in modern English Palestinians. Prior to 1300BC the Holy Land was occupied by mostly nomadic small tribes. By 1000BC Greece seems to have had several Jewish city states. In 961BC the Israelites, who as has been shown by DNA research share the same Greek ancestry as the Palestinians, invaded the country that they called the "Land of Canaan" and eventually conquered it. The Palestinians and Jews both lived continuously in Palestine under subsequent occupations while retaining their cultural identity to the present day. Jewish occupation lasted for a few hundred years until Assyria invaded, although the Israelites retained some small city states. Babylon then invaded in 586 BC at which time the Jews were driven out although they returned and again set up several small states. In 333BC Alexander the Great conquered the region and it is thought this was when some Jews were dispersed into Egypt as both refugees and slaves. A large number of Jews remained in the region. In 165BC there was a Jewish revolt and the creation of the last Jewish state that lasted until the Romans invaded 102 years later in 63BC. In 70AD the Jews were forced to leave after an unsuccessful revolt against the Romans. In 118AD the Romans allowed the Jews to return and resettle but they revolted again 15 years later and were again banished or sold into slavery. Roman rule ended in 638AD when the Arab Muslims took control (Muhammad, the founder of Islam, died in 632AD). By 750AD the lands of Islam, under Arab leadership, stretched from Spain in the west across North Africa and most of the modern Middle East into Central Asia and northern India. The Muslims allowed the Jews to return and practice their religion without interference and most settled in the Southern Spanish province of Andalusia under the rule of the Moors. The Moors treated the Jewish population very well and much of the defence of Muslim Spain was left in the hands of Jewish armies. This religious tolerance was possibly driven by socio-economic reasons. This period was seen as a golden age for Jewish culture and many from the Middle East and Europe immigrated to Spain. The Christian Spanish and Portuguese however considered the Jews as traitors for collaborating with the Moors. After the defeat of the Moors in 1492 the Spanish (King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella) gave the Jews the option of either immigrating to the Netherlands (then under Spanish rule), converting to Christianity or being executed. Many pretended to convert to Christianity while many also fled to other parts of the Muslim empire. Today a stew of Pork and Clams is still popular in Spain and Portugal. This dish was originally introduced as a test to determine if a Jewish conversion was genuine. The Spanish Jews are called Sephardic Jews that today speak a medieval Andalusian dialect with Hebrew inclusions. Anti Semitism in Western Europe probably originated as a result of this period of suppression as there is little evidence of it earlier. Elsewhere the Arab and Turkish Muslims remained in power until WW1 as the Ottoman Empire (except for the Crusader occupation of 1099 - 1187). In 1094 or 1095, Alexios I Komnenos, the Byzantine emperor, sent an envoy to the pope, Urban II, and asked for aid from the west against the Seljuk Turks who had captured some of his outlying provinces. The Turks were a tribe from Mongolia who invaded and settled the country we call Turkey, they also settled in Southern Russia and the Ukraine, which is very significant for Jewish history, unlike the Sephardic Jews, the Turks are not of Arab ancestry. At the council of Clermont Urban addressed a crowd and urged all to go to the aid of the Greeks and at the same time recover Palestine from the rule of the Muslims. Jews and Muslims as well as Christians lived together in peace in the Middle East at this time and the Jews fought alongside the Muslims against the crusaders (the Christians usually fled before the crusaders arrived). The crusades were to end Muslim control of "Christian" sacred sites, another aim of the crusades was to end the constant warring in Europe by giving the armies a common cause. Urban told everyone that the Muslims were robbing and torturing Christian pilgrims journeying to the holy land which was a lie to get public support for the Crusades. The speech that Urban gave as written down by a witness: Quote: " "Although, O sons of God, you have promised more firmly than ever to keep the peace among yourselves and to preserve the rights of the church, there remains still an important work for you to do. Freshly quickened by the divine correction, you must apply the strength of your righteousness to another matter which concerns you as well as God. For your brethren who live in the east are in urgent need of your help, and you must hasten to give them the aid which has often been promised them. For, as the most of you have heard, the Turks and Arabs have attacked them and have conquered the territory of Romania [the Greek empire] as far west as the shore of the Mediterranean and the Hellespont, which is called the Arm of St. George. They have occupied more and more of the lands of those Christians, and have overcome them in seven battles. They have killed and captured many, and have destroyed the churches and devastated the empire. If you permit them to continue thus for awhile with impurity, the faithful of God will be much more widely attacked by them. On this account I, or rather the Lord, beseech you as Christ's heralds to publish this everywhere and to persuade all people of whatever rank, foot-soldiers and knights, poor and rich, to carry aid promptly to those Christians and to destroy that vile race from the lands of our friends. I say this to those who are present, it meant also for those who are absent. Moreover, Christ commands it. "All who die by the way, whether by land or by sea, or in battle against the pagans, shall have immediate remission of sins. This I grant them through the power of God with which I am invested. O what a disgrace if such a despised and base race, which worships demons, should conquer a people which has the faith of omnipotent God and is made glorious with the name of Christ! With what reproaches will the Lord overwhelm us if you do not aid those who, with us, profess the Christian religion! Let those who have been accustomed unjustly to wage private warfare against the faithful now go against the infidels and end with victory this war which should have been begun long ago. Let those who for a long time, have been robbers, now become knights. Let those who have been fighting against their brothers and relatives now fight in a proper way against the barbarians. Let those who have been serving as mercenaries for small pay now obtain the eternal reward. Let those who have been wearing themselves out in both body and soul now work for a double honour. Behold! on this side will be the sorrowful and poor, on that, the rich; on this side, the enemies of the Lord, on that, his friends. Let those who go not put off the journey, but rent their lands and collect money for their expenses; and as soon as winter is over and spring comes, let hem eagerly set out on the way with God as their guide." Pope Urban wanted the Crusade to consist of only soldiers controlled by the church but tens of thousands of peasants including their women and children joined and the Crusaders were unable to control them. The "peoples" Crusade killed thousands of Jews along the way and eventually reached Constantinople where Komnenos (Comeno) asked them to wait for the main armies. The peasants however were living off the land by pillaging the Byzantine farms and killing whoever got in their way so Comeno ferried them across the Bosphoros where possibly 40,000 were killed by the Turks on arrival. The official armies, four from France under the command of Robert, Hugh, Godfrey and Raymond and one from Italy under Bohemond reached Byzantium in 1096 with the overall commander being Bishop Adh魡r of Le Puy. Nicaea was the first city to fall to the Crusaders and the Byzantine army after a two month siege. Comeno gave the Crusader armies all the cities food and wealth but refused permission to rape the women or kill the civilians and this caused a lot of ill feeling and trouble later on. The armies split into two and continued. The armies ran out of food and water which weakened them considerably so to obtain supplies, Christian Armenia which was surrounded by Muslim states was conquered. Antioch was then besieged but the Crusaders ran out of food and many starved to death. Around this time the remaining peoples army (around 3,000) had joined them. They refused to starve and resorted to cannibalism eventually digging up the cemeteries to get food. The Turks were disgusted and offered the Crusaders peace if they stopped the "Tafurs" (a Flemish word meaning "rabble" that the Crusaders used for the peoples army) desecrating the dead but the Crusaders said they had no control over them. After 9 months a Christian who had converted to Islam and controlled one of the gates let them into the city and the crusaders and Tafurs killed those Muslims and Jews unable to flee. Now that the crusaders held the city they were worse off as they could not retreat and a superior Turkish army was coming to liberate the city. Alex Comeno, the Byzantine emperor was also rushing to help the crusaders but Baron Itienne and Guilherme de Grandsmesnil together with all their troops deserted and took refuge with Comeno. The barons told Comeno that the Crusade was over and the rest of the Crusaders were probably dead. Therefore, it would be better for Comeno to stay in a safe position so he returned to Constantinople. The Christians in Antioch, not knowing what the deserters had done, believed that Comeno had abandoned them. Only a miracle could save “God's Army''. The soldiers refused to execute any order and only got out of their living quarters when Bohemond set fire to them. Though scared they had no choice but to fight and defend the city. But, an unusual event saved them. And it was something that all historians (including Muslims) believe to be a miracle regardless of their different beliefs. His name was Peter Barthelemy and he was a servant. He had such a bad reputation that even his friends considered him immoral. He said that he had been visited by Saint Andrew and Jesus in his dreams. Jesus and Saint Andrew ordered Peter to tell the Crusaders that their immoral relationship with pagan women brought God's anger. Nevertheless, God was ready to forgive their sins by sending a sign of his pardon. God revealed the location of the Holy Spear, which had been used against Jesus during the Crucifixion. According to Peter's dreams, the spear was buried under the Church of Antioch. It was known that the “authentic” spear was in Constantinople, however, the Crusaders' state of mind provoked the appearance of other phenomena as well to support Peter. So many soldiers had visions that the barons allowed Peter to look for the spear under the Saint Jacques' Church. All Peter found was a short rusty piece of iron but when Peter came out of the hole with the "spear'", everybody fell to their knees and cried. The crusaders believed Peter had planted the "spear" but knew the effect it would have on the men so the bishop of Puy had to, against his will, admit the possibility of having found the real spear. Desperate men became warriors, ready to kill a much better and more numerous enemy. The Crusaders then decided to leave a few troops to defend the city and attack in the field despite the likelihood of defeat. The Turks made the mistake of letting them prepare formations in the battlefield because they wanted to kill them all in one battle rather than various skirmishes. The Crusaders apparently fought like madmen and the Turks were totally defeated. Bohemond stayed to rule Antioch while Raymond took his troops to Jeruselem. Jeruselem was fortified and garrisoned by more Arab and African troops than there were Crusaders and there was also an Egyptian army on the way. The Christians living in the city had been expelled and the surrounding country burned. Again the soldiers had visions where God told them they would succeed if they attacked so they did but this time it was a total disaster. This didn't deter the Crusaders though and miracles, visions and signs were common every day. Six days later the crusaders found that one of the walls was undefended and entered the city. Everyone found was killed. Some of the Muslims barricaded inside the al Aksa Mosque were promised freedom if they opened the doors. When the doors opened they were all killed. The Jews likewise barricaded themselves inside their main Synagogue but it was burned down with all inside. Some were spared so that they could be used as slaves to cart the dead out of the city and the cities ruler and his bodyguard who had taken refuge in the tower of David were given safe conduct after negotiating surrender. The Crusaders now controlled the Holy lands. The second crusade began after the Muslims recaptured the Holy Land. By the end of the crusade the Christians had recaptured all the lost land but then Saladin launched a Jihad. Saladin was a Kurd not an Arab or a Turk. Saladin recaptured Jerusalem in 1187, prompting the Christians to launch a Third Crusade led by King Richard “the Lion-Hearted” of England. The Christians won some battles in the Third Crusade but Saladin was able to hold Jerusalem for the Muslims. The two warriors agreed to a truce that allowed the Muslims control the Holy Lands, but Christians were free to visit their shrines. The Crusades were a turning point for Western Europe (this was the end of the "Dark Ages"). The returning soldiers told stories of the lands they visited and people became interested in other cultures for the first time. The Crusaders discovered spices that allowed food to last longer and taste better. The women in Europe found they liked the fabrics from the East and this got trade really moving. The next two centuries led to advances in technology and the arts we know as the Renaissance. There was however a dark side. Middle European anti Semitism had it’s roots in the Crusades. The periodic slaughter of European Jews usually coincided with the Crusaders leaving or returning. Jewish moneylenders financed many of the Crusader campaigns. The pretext of Jewish responsibility for the death of Jesus was a convenient excuse to avoid repaying these loans and the general public persecuted the Jews as they came to believe the Crusader excuses. There was also the matter of the Jews in the Middle East siding with the Muslims. From then up to the nineteenth century anti Semitism was usually based on Jewish financial practices, supposed counterfeiting or the infamous blood libel. Eastern and to an extent middle European anti Semitism has it’s roots with the Turks who had immigrated from Mongolia and settled in Southern Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and the Ukraine forming a kingdom called Khazaria although some archaeologists believe the Turks may have been indigenous to the region. The Kharzacs had two distinct castes, the upper class who largely had blond or red hair, blue eyes and pale skin and the working class who had very dark features. It’s possible the upper class had the same roots as the Rus (Russians) who became an empire after the city of Kiev invited the Vikings (who had blond hair and fair skin) to settle and rule them. Over time these visual class differences disappeared. In the early 8th century the Arabs defeated Khazaria and converted the population to Islam but occupation was not practical and the Arabs withdrew. In the mid 8th century Khazaria imported thousands of Rabbi’s to convert the entire population to Judaism. At first it was only the upper classes who converted but by the mid 10th century the whole of Khazaria was Jewish. This was either commercial as Khazaria was in the middle of the trade routes between Europe, Middle East and Asia and the conversion allowed trade with both Christian and Muslim ruled countries, political in order to remain neutral as it bordered both Christian and Muslim empires, it may have been an expression of their newly gained independence from Muslim rule or a combination. Interestingly the ruler of Khazaria at this time was a woman named Barsbek, bek being a title indicating responsibility for administration and the military. The Khagan who was only the spiritual head was usually regarded as the king by other empires. The two positions were merged in the 10th century during the rule of King Joseph. Khazaria also considered itself the protector of the worlds Jews and kept in touch with the Jews in all the countries they settled in. They were known to retaliate on their behalf if any other countries Jews were persecuted. Religious tolerance was a part of life and no attempts were made to prevent other religions from converting Kharzacs but they were rarely successful. Some important Sephardic Jews from Spain are known to have immigrated to Khazaria. Khazaria fought several wars against invading Arabs and probably prevented Arab conquests of Russia. However orthodox Russia saw Khazaria as its enemy because it was the most powerful European kingdom with the largest army and the Kharzacs were persecuted in Russia as a result. Khazaria was invaded and defeated by Genghis Khan in the 13th century and the population spread West as refugees. They ended up settling in countries such as Germany, Hungary, Poland and Italy among others. The Kharzac Jews were only a minority among the Jews in these countries so quickly lost their identity but those who reached Spain kept their Kharzac ethnic identities for at least 200 years or more. The Ashkenazi at the time of the defeat of Khazaria made up 3% of the worlds Jews but today comprise 80%. Zionist author Arthur Koestler published that all Ashkenazi have Kharzac ancestry. However, according to DNA studies some 40% of Ashkenazi are of Middle Eastern origin and the rest Eastern European although it is believed they are strongly influenced by Kharzac roots. Ironically many consider linking Kharzac roots with the Ashkenazi as anti Semitic because critics use it to say they are not included in God’s promise of Israel to the Jews although the Bible specifically includes converts. Unfortunately anti Zionists use the Kharzac claim for their own ends which makes it hard to investigate without being accused of anti Semitism. Ashkenazi speak Yiddish, which is a medieval German dialect with many Turk and Hebrew words. It is hard to understand the German origin until you realise that the Turks who settled Khazaria took very few women with them so intermarried with the women from Germanic tribes to the West. The Jews who remained in the Middle East spoke Aramaic while European groups spoke Greek. Post WW1 German anti Semitism was based mostly on the common belief that the Rothschild banking empire and through them “international Jewry” had financed the war against Germany and were involved in the treaty of Versailles. This resentment was exploited by Hitler to divert attention from the problems facing the German people and provide someone to blame while furthering his own agenda. Of course the Holocaust is anti Semitism at it's worst that but to cover it requires a topic of it's own. Post WW2 anti Semitism is harder to pin down. While opportunism and politics accounts for much anti Semitism there seems to be few serious cases of racially motivated anti Semitism. For example many of the attacks on Synagogues and cemeteries prevalent in the decades after WW2 have been found to have been organised by Zionist groups to encourage Jews to immigrate to “safety” in Israel. While it is undeniable that anti Semitism is still with us, it may not be as widespread as it appears, as any criticism of Israel is considered Anti Semitic even when not racially motivated. Muslim anti Semitism is probably related to the plight of the Palestinians as the Muslims and Arabs lived in peace together until the State of Israel was created.