Operations - Code Names - "A"

Discussion in 'General' started by spidge, May 28, 2006.

  1. spidge

    spidge RAAF RESEARCHER

    I have always been intrigued with Code names for Operations. I feel there is alot to be learned by discussing these operations thoughout all theatres for both the Allies and Axis.

    Remember we are looking at these in hindsight!

    Was it worth the trouble?

    I suggest we start with the letter 'A' and discuss (5) operations then move onto "B" then "C" through to "Z" then back to "A".

    Let me put one to start for comment and get eveyone reading:

    Operation Archery (Anklet).

    Operation Archery, the raid on Vaagso and Maaloy on the Norwegian coast 27/12/1941.
     
  2. Kitty

    Kitty Very Senior Member

    Operation Anklet
    26 - 28.12.41
    Lofoten Islands (Reine, Sund & Sø rvå gen)
    UNIT 12 Commando & ‘Linge’ Company
    Numbers: 300

    Description: This operation was in fact designed as a diversion for Operation Archery. The force which included men from the Norwegian ‘Lingekompaniet’ landed unopposed and captured the German garrison without a fight, they left 2 days later after having destroyed installations and taking with them 29 German prisoners as well as over 200 Norwegians.
    Operation Archery
    27.12.41
    Vå gsø y
    UNIT(S) 2,3,4,6 Cdos & ‘Linge’ company
    Numbers: 800 (including 36 Norwegians)
    Description: This operation is one of the most well known and certainly the best photographed as the raid was accompanied by official photographers and cameramen. The raid was to destroy German installations at Vå gsø y and the force was to be supported by the RAF who provided air cover and attacked the airfield of Herdla near Bergen. The naval part of the force consisted of one cruiser, four destroyers and 2 landing-ships, the warships opened proceedings with a bombardment of the island of Må lø y.
    The commandos were split into five groups, one landed to the West of South Vå gsø y to secure the area then move up to the town. The second group landed to the North of the town to prevent German reinforcements getting in. The third group landed on Må lø y to deal with the guns and garrison there, however the navy had done their job well and the guns were silent, it didn’t take long for the garrison to be subdued. The fourth group landed at the town itself and this proved to be the main centre of resistance. The last group was kept onboard ship to act as a floating reserve.
    The Germans in the town were in greater number than expected and the group called for reinforcements from the group to the West, from the floating reserve and from elements of the group on Må lø y.
    Fierce house to house fighting developed but by 13:45 the fighting was over and an hour later the force re-embarked. Behind them they left 15,000 tons of shipping destroyed, warehouses, dockyards, fish-oil processing plants and all German installations destroyed.
    98 Germans were taken prisoner along with 4 ‘Quislings’, 77 Norwegians also decided to come with them back to Britain.
    The cost to the Germans had been around 150 killed, the British lost 219 men and 57 wounded and the Norwegian force lost 1 man and 2 wounded. The Norwegian killed was an especially painful loss as it was their commander Kaptein Martin Linge who fell during the assault on Må lø y.
    The after effects of the raid had far reaching consequences; the Germans took reprisals against the Norwegian population which prompted protests from the Norwegian king Haakon VII and the government-in-exile. The Germans also began to reinforce and strengthen their defences which was to the allies advantage as this tied down many troops which could be otherwise used elsewhere.


    With thanks to http://www.nuav.net for the information.
     
  3. spidge

    spidge RAAF RESEARCHER

    Well done Mossy.

    What about another beginning with"A"?
     
  4. laufer

    laufer Senior Member

    Acid Drop. No.5 Commando's first operation was on the night of 30-31st August 1941. It consisted of two simultaneous operations each carried out by a party of one officer and fourteen men. Their targets were the beaches at Hardelot and Merlimont with the aim of carrying out reconnaissance and, if possible, to capture a German soldier. It was a hit and run type raid with only thirty minutes ashore but in the event neither party encountered the enemy. Useful lessons were learnt.
     
  5. laufer

    laufer Senior Member

    Operation Avalanche.
    Landings near the port of Salerno, executed on 9 September 1943, part of the Allied Invasion of Italy. The Italians withdrew from the war the day before the invasion, but the Allies landed in an area defended by German troops.
    The landings were carried out by the U.S. Fifth Army, under American General Mark W. Clark. It comprised the U.S. VI Corps, the British X Corps and the US 82nd Airborne Division, a total of about nine divisions. Its primary objectives were to seize the port of Naples to ensure resupply, and to cut across to the east coast, trapping the Axis troops further south.
     
  6. ourbill

    ourbill Senior Member

    Operations alphabeticly, I have a few but I've limited details about many, lots of interest but I'm in North Africa with the 1st Army at the moment!

    ABERCROMBIE: British and Canadian troops landing on French coast at Hardelot.
    ABIGAIL: Plan for a series of RAF bombing raids against designated German cities: ABIGAIL-JEZEBEL Bremen. ABIGAL-RACHEL Mannheim and ABIGAIL-DELILAH Dusseldorf December 1940.
    ACCOLADE: Seizure of the Dodecanese.
    ACROBAT: Planned British operation to advance from Cyrenaica to Tripoli 1941.
    AGREEMENT: Unsuccessful British attack on Tobruk by sea and land in an attempt to destroy Axis supply depot and port installations.
    ALAMO: Code name for the task froce for operations in New Guinea.
    ALPHA: Plan to defend Kunming and Chungking.
    ALSOS: Allied special intelligence force's mission to collect information about German nuclear fission developments.
    AMBASSADOR: British commando raid on Guernsey July 1940.
    AMSTERDAM: Allied supply operations to Slovak and Soviet partisans at Tri Duby September 1944.
    ANAKIM: Plan to recapture Burma.
    ANKLET: Lofoten Islands raids 1941.
    ANTHROPIOD: December 1941 Allies drop 2 Czech agents near Pilsen for the eventual assassination of SS leader Reinhard Heydrich in May 1942.
    ANVIL( later renamed DRAGOON) Plan for the invation of southern France.
    APOSTLE: Allied return to Norway May 1945.
    APPEARANCE: Landings in British Somaliland by Indian battalions March 1941.
    ARCADIA: Code name for the Washington Conference Dec. 1941-Jan. 1942.
    ARCHERY: British commando raid on Maloy, Norway sinking German transport ships Dec. 1941.
    ARGONAUT: Code name for the Malta and Yalta conference Jan-Feb. 1945.
    ARGUMENT: Plan for US air operations against German aircraft factories Feb. 1944.
    ARIEL: Evacuation of allied troops from Western France 1940.
    ATLANTIC: Canadian element of OP. GOODWOOD.
    AVALANCHE: Invasion of Italy at Salerno 9 Sept. 1943.
    AVONMOUTH: Allied expedition to Narvik May 1940.

    No doubt I have missed some out and added some which are really not Operations in the true sense of the word but I am sure they will all be 'coat hangers' for further study.
     
  7. viper_1967

    viper_1967 Member

    BARRISTER Plan for capture of Dakar (formerly BLACK and PICADOR).
    BLACK Plan for seizure of Dakar (later PICADOR and BARRISTER).
    BOLERO Build-up of U.S. forces and supplies in United Kingdom for cross-Channel attack.
     
  8. viper_1967

    viper_1967 Member

    ooops, are we ready for the B's?

    ANCHORAGE Code name originally used for projected Hansa Bay operation. ANCHORAGE was used for ALAMO Force journals kept during the Admiralties operation.
     
  9. Gerry Chester

    Gerry Chester WW2 Veteran WW2 Veteran

    "Operation Buckland" that saw the defeat of the German forces in Italy - launched 0400 hours, Tuesday, 10th April, 1945.

    Cheers, Gerry
     
  10. spidge

    spidge RAAF RESEARCHER

    To make up the five "A's" I have taken the first two of Ourbill's list.

    During World War II, Operation Abercrombie was a raid on the French coastal village of Hardelot scheduled for the night of 18/19 April,1942, but inhibited by bad weather until 21/22 April.
    It was a short duration raid of 2 hours ashore to reconnoitre the beach defences, take prisoners, destroy a searchlight battery and inflict damage to defences. The force comprised 100 men of No.4 Commando and 50 men from the Canadian Carleton and York Regiment, (2 Canadian Infantry Brigade), under overall command of Major The Lord Lovat of No.4.
    This was the first occasion the new LCS (Landing Craft Support) was employed, equipped with two machine guns and a mortar. The Canadian flotilla experienced compass navigational problems and became separated, eventually attracting tracer fire from the shore returned by their accompanying MGBs (Motor Gun Boats). No troops disembarked. The Commandos landed further north than intended but were unopposed and escaped detection until among the deep sand dunes and wire entanglements. Support fire from the LCSs partially suppressed moderate German tracer fire from the flanks and the Commandos were able to progress.
    Defences were found to be light and/or abandoned as they advanced and only three Germans were encountered at close quarters who withdrew immediately. The official report recorded, "no determined opposition". A fighting patrol of 12 men sent to destroy the searchlights reached their objective but had to retire before pressing home their attack due to lack of time remaining signaled by the re-call rocket.
    One Allied casualty being a Commando shot through the ankles after failing to respond to a beachhead sentry's challenge quick enough. Supporting Navy craft encountered and engaged enemy vessels, including E Boats, sinking at least one and damaging others, for three Naval casualties. Enemy land casualties unknown.
    Experience of the operation contributed towards the major Combined Operations raid on Dieppe, France, Operation Jubilee, the following August.
     
  11. spidge

    spidge RAAF RESEARCHER

    Operation Abigail Rachel:

    The night of 16/17 December will be remembered as the first area attack carried out by Bomber Command. The raid on Mannheim, code-named Operation Abigail Rachel, was authorised in retaliation for recent heavy bombing of English cities (particularly Coventry) and a force of 200 aircraft was prepared. In the end, 134 aircraft were sent - still the largest number to a single target. The attack was opened by 8 Wellingtons using incendiaries which, it was hoped, would start a fire and aid identification of the target. Figures vary, but no more than 102 aircraft actually bombed Mannheim, and the majority of bombs fell away from the city centre as the fire-raising Wellingtons had missed the centre of the city. The casualties for the night totalled 34 dead with 81 injured.

    Other Abigails were ABIGAIL-JEZEBEL Bremen. ABIGAIL-DELILAH Dusseldorf December 1940.
     
  12. spidge

    spidge RAAF RESEARCHER

    "Operation Buckland" that saw the defeat of the German forces in Italy - launched 0400 hours, Tuesday, 10th April, 1945.

    Cheers, Gerry

    From the 461st Bomb Group Air Force contribution. Intricate isn't it?

    RED FORCE
    SECRET
    DATE: 15 APRIL 1945

    See mission poop sheet here...... http://www.461st.org/Missions/15%20APRIL%201945.htm

    Mission No. 215
    15 April 1945
    German Troop Concentrations in Bologna Area, Italy
    The second phase of Operation Buckland, this time in support of the Fifth Army, began on 15 April and aimed at disorganization of the enemy's day, the Red Force, led by Colonel Rogers, had for its objective enemy troop concentrations and gun emplacements located approximately a fourth of a mile north of the junction of Reno and Sette Rivers. En route to the target the plane piloted by 2nd Lt. Frank M. Brown, Jr., lost two of its engines and the crew were forced to bail out in the area of Florence. The rest of the force of thirty-eight planes got through to the target without incident. Using 250 pound general purpose bombs, the Group unloaded its cargo of eighty tons directly on the target leveling the installations. There was no opposition at the target in the way of flak or enemy fighters.
     
  13. Peter Clare

    Peter Clare Very Senior Member

    Operation Bobbery.

    The mass laying of acoustic mines by Bomber Command which took place on the nights of 19-20: 21-22: 23-24 September 1942 when a total of 457 were laid in verious gardens.
     
  14. spidge

    spidge RAAF RESEARCHER

    Operation Basalt
    During World War II, Operation Basalt was a small raid on the German occupied British Channel Island of Sark, on the night of 3/4 October, 1942.
    It was conducted by ten men of the Special Operations Executive's Small Scale Raiding Force, and No.12 Commando with the object of offensive reconnaissance and capturing prisoners.
    Nine of the raiders broke into the house of a local while the tenth went to a covert rendezvous with an SOE agent. The occupant of the house, Frances Pittard, proved very informative and advised there were about 20 Germans in the nearby Dixcart Hotel. She also declined an offer to take her back to England.
    In front of the hotel was a long hut-type building, apparently unguarded. This annex comprised a corridor and five rooms wherein were five sleeping Germans, none found to be officers. The men were roused and taken outside whereafter the Commandos decided to go on to the hotel and capture more of the enemy. To minimise the guard left with the captives, the Commandos tied the prisoners hands with the toggle ropes each carried a six foot length of, and required them to hold up their trousers. The practise of removing belts and/or braces and tearing open the fly was quite a common technique the Commandos used to make it as difficult as possible for captives to run away.
    While this was being undertaken, one prisoner started shouting to alert those in the hotel and was instantly shot dead with a .38 revolver. The enemy now alerted, incoming fire from the hotel became considerable and the raiders elected to return to the beach with the remaining four prisoners. En route to the beach, three prisoners made a break. Whether or not some had freed their hands during the firefight is not established nor if all three broke at the same time. Two were believed shot and one stabbed. The fourth was conveyed safely back to England and proved a mine of information. The raiders also evacuated a SOE agent who had been posing as a Polish worker doing forced labour on the island.
    A few days later the Germans issued a propaganda communiqué implying at least one prisoner had escaped and two were shot while resisting having their hands tied.
    It is believed this instance of tying prisoner's hands contributed to Hitler's decision to issue his Commando Order instructing all captured Commandos or Commando-type personnel be executed as a matter of procedure.
    Names of some of the soldiers on the raid:
     
  15. spidge

    spidge RAAF RESEARCHER

    The P38 Lost Squadron Museum houses the "Glacier Girl," a P38 which was flying in the Operation Bolero mission during WWII in 1942. The planes in the operation were forced down, and the 25 Army Air Corps crewmen were rescued. However, the six P38's and two B-17's were buried under ice, which by 1992 when the recovery got under way, had drifted 1.5 miles and were then buried under 25 stories of ice. Using techniques of Cold Mining, a steam probe was used to bore a hole down to "Glacier Girl." Once there, a crew descended down the hole and began to carve out the "Glacier Girl" using a hot-water cannon. The plane was then moved to Middlesboro and restored. Plans for "Glacier Girl" include the plane being flown in different air shows, it will remain the number one attraction at the museum, and ultimately, it is hoped that "Glacier Girl" will fly and complete the Operation Bolero mission.

    On April 12, 1942, Lt. Gen. Henry H. Arnold, chief of the Army Air Corps, sent the air plans for Operation Bolero from his office at Bolling Field to Gen. George C. Marshall in London. Two days later, the British Government accepted these plans and the buildup of American military forces in Britain begins.
    The buildup is so massive that it takes more than two years before Allied forces will be able to storm the beaches at Normandy.
    Unlike other operations at that time, Bolero wasn't directing fighting against the Axis. It focused instead on transferring planes and pilots to Britain. More specifically, Bolero was the umbrella mission for ferrying aircraft over the North Atlantic. This had been done before with bombers and transports. But in an era before aerial refueling became a mainstay, it hadn't been done with fighters because of their smaller size and limited range. Many doubted it was even possible, but General Arnold believed he had found an unusual-looking fighter that could make the trip: the P-38 Lightning.
    After the attack on Pearl Harbor, extending the range of American military aircraft became a priority for aircraft manufacturers. The best fighter aircraft of the day was the P-38, the fastest, with a top speed of more than 400 mph and visually memorable for its twin engine, twin-tail boom design. Lockheed had experimented with the P-38 in 1941. It designed a low-drag tank and shackles to allow the airplane to carry two individual tanks, either 165 or 300 gallons each.
    In March 1942, General Arnold learned the new P-38s could make the flight to England, but that weather and navigation would remain a problem. Brig. Gen. Frank O'Driscoll "Monk" Hunter was given the assignment to deliver five P-38 fighter groups of approximately 85 aircraft to England and to find solutions for every problem that arose.
    By using two British airfields in Iceland, with the Army Air Corps constructing more, General Hunter planned for the 1st, 14th and 78th Pursuit groups to cross the North Atlantic first. Units of the 97th Bomb Group would ferry their bombers at the same time, with a single B-17 acting as the lead aircraft navigating for four P-38s.
    Problems surfaced almost immediately.
    Weather: There was no system in place to gather crucial weather information, as winds in excess of 150 mph appeared around Greenland with little warning, and visibility could change in minutes.
    Navigation: Path proximity to the north magnetic pole affected compass readings.
    Radio: Radio reception faded out without warning. Also, German military units on the sea and in the air also made false radio transmissions to confuse the pilots.
    Construction: The Army Air Corps' new airfields in the region were only 30 percent complete by April 1942.
    The Pacific Front: General Marshall ordered a halt to all eastbound flights and routed all available aircraft to the West Coast of the United States. But once the Battle of Midway neutralized the Japanese offensive threat in June, aircraft were once again flying over the North Atlantic.
    On June 1, 1942, Operation Bolero delivered its first aircraft to England. None of the P-38s were lost in transit on the initial flight, although there had been some minor engine failures. Making the difference was the two-engine design of the P-38. Later flights had mixed results. Success depended on the availability of better communications equipment, fuel and oil supplies reaching the finished North Atlantic airfields. But the P-38, with all its revolutionary milestones in design, could now claim even greater fame. It was the first fighter to demonstrate a nonstop, unrefueled range of 3,000 miles. Over the course of WWII, it would also be the first fighter to carry a 4,000 pound bomb load in wartime conditions as well as the first to fly anywhere with two torpedoes.
    General Arnold's support of the P-38 was justified by the aircraft's versatility. The P-38 was the only airplane in the U.S. inventory to be in service for the entire duration of World War II. It was also a means to get the number-one in-demand resource to England for Operation Bolero-experienced pilots.
    Approximately 200 pilots participated in Operation Bolero. By August 1942, 164 P-38s made it to British airfields. The only losses were the one-time forced landing of six P-38s and one other Lightning that was lost. It was a logistical success that would eventually lead the way to Allied victory in Europe.
     
  16. Cpl Rootes

    Cpl Rootes Senior Member

    Operation Bagretion:

    Operation BAGRATION was the single greatest victory of the Red Army over the Germans in World War II. Begun on 22 June 1944, BAGRATION resulted in the destruction of Army Group Center and the reconquest of Byelorussia. BAGRATION marked the high point of Soviet deception in Stalin's war against Hitler. Deception was a necessary cause for the operation's unmatched success. Not surprisingly, the Russian military since 1945 has studied the maskirovka and other aspects of BAGRATION intensively, convinced that "the experience in achieving surprise acquired by Soviet troops in the past war has largely retained its value and instructiveness."
     
  17. spidge

    spidge RAAF RESEARCHER

    Operation Alacrity.

    Quite a secret operation from a book by one who was there. The Portugese government actually gave permission for the bases and refuelling depots to be built/placed on their soil.

    OPERATION ALACRITY: The Azores and the War in the Atlantic


    Sea Classics, May 2004 by Redman, Rod E

    OPERATION ALACRITY: The Azores and the War in the Atlantic By Norman Herz 398 Pgs, Illustrated/map, 6.5'' X 9'', Hardback. ISBN: 1-59114-364-0 - $32.95. US Naval Institute Press; 800-233-8764; www.NavalInstitute.org
    Anyone who has ever studied the Atlantic War is well aware that despite the strategic prominence of the Azore Islands, located almost in the middle of the Atlantic, little mention was made of them during the war years and even less was revealed about their wartime role in many supposedly definitive histories later published. As students, we learned the Azores were Portuguese property, and everyone of course knew Portugal was neutral. Or was it? Was this tiny cluster of islands the "Black Hole of the Atlantic" or merely pawns in a cunningly orchestrated political game? Operation Alacrity sheds light on this long ambivalent issue.
    To win the war against German U-boats in World War II, the Allies had to protect their convoys in the vast black hole of the mid-Atlantic known as the Azores Gap. In 1943 they devised a plan to set up air bases on the Azores Islands, owned by neutral Portugal. It was essential for the operation to remain secret so that the Allies could get the islands before the Germans, who also planned to build bases there from which to launch bombing raids against American seacoast cities.
    Advertisement


    The author of this book, Norman Herz, took part in the Allied operation, called Operation Alacrity, as a corporal with the US Army Corps of Engineers'928th Engineer Aviation Regiment. At the time he was given little information about the operation and told never to talk about what he did. After the war the operation remained mostly unknown, kept secret, Herz suggests, so as not to embarrass the US government, which had publicly denied plans to invade the Portuguese territory while secretly preparing an invasion task force.
    In researching this book, Herz could not find the operation mentioned in official US histories of World War II, but he discovered a treasure trove of memos and other documents among the files of the US Joint chiefs of Staff, the Combined US-UK Chiefs of Staff, and the State Department. Told here for the first time, the story is filled with diplomatic intrigue and double-dealing and includes secret meetings between Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill. It also provides a fascinating account of Churchill's efforts to justify landing in the Azores by referencing a 1373 treaty between Portugal and Britain. From US Navy Seabees to RAF Sappers, all Allied engineering branches participated in the invasion. The success of their operation is undeniable: U-boats stopped patrolling the Azores Gap and not a single Allied ship in the area was lost again. Today the base is an important link to American and NATO defenses worldwide.
     
  18. spidge

    spidge RAAF RESEARCHER

    With respect to the 600 year old treaty:

    The Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373 was signed between King Edward III of England and King Ferdinand and Queen Eleanor of Portugal. It established a treaty of "perpetual friendships, unions [and] alliances" between the two seafaring nations.
    It was reinforced throughout history, including in 1386, 1643, 1654, 1660, 1661, 1703, 1815 and by a secret declaration in 1899. It was recognized in the Treaties of Arbitration in the 20th century between Britain and Portugal in 1904 and 1914.
    It was activated again during the Second World War, whereupon the Portuguese remained neutral, in agreement with Britain, which did not want to bring the war into the Iberian Peninsula, until 1943, when it was fully reactivated by the National Government of Winston Churchill and Portugal. Britain, after 3 months' negotiations, was accorded aerodrome and nautcial facilities in the Portuguese Azores to help combat the U-boat threat.

    Excerpt

    An excerpt of the treaty is given below:
    "In the first place we settle and covenant that there shall be from this day forward... true, faithful, constant, mutual and perpetual friendships, unions, alliances, and needs of sincere affection, and that as true and faithful friends we shall henceforth, reciprocally, be friends to friends and enemies to enemies, and shall assist, maintain, and uphold each other mutually, by sea and by land, against all men that may live and die."

    Source
    • "Closing The Ring", Churchill, Sir Winston Spencer, 1951
     
  19. Christos

    Christos Discharged

    Is this for Allied operations only?....what about German ops...and Italian...and Russian for that matter...it's an admirable thing to list these operations....well done!
     
  20. spidge

    spidge RAAF RESEARCHER

    Is this for Allied operations only?....what about German ops...and Italian...and Russian for that matter...it's an admirable thing to list these operations....well done!

    No.

    When I started the thread it was for all operations!
     

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