Thats interesting, why were some held in punishment camps and not others?
The subject of Allied internees in punishment camps is very touchy subject because not every American in the punishment camps was considered "interned" -- some were considered criminals for violations of Swiss laws, as well as for violating conditions of internship to which internees were expected to comply as a condition of continuing internship in Switzerland. Some
internees assigned to punishment camps have successfully petitioned to have the Dept. of Defense amend their DD Form 214 to reflect that he was a POW instead of an internee. For an internee to have his DD Form 214 amended, the appellant must present substantive and relevant evidence to demonstrate:
(a.) the existence of error or injustice
(b.) that he adhered to the conditions of internship and orders of the U.S. Military Attache
(c.) that committed no infractions of Swiss law.
Evidence of generalized personal sacrifice which an applicant endured in the service for his country is not
a basis for automatic status change and result in a revision of DD Form 214.
There were approximately 1,600 American airmen interned in Switzerland during WW II. An Allied combatant who sought asylum in (or escaped/evaded to) Switzerland was classified an "internee"
(a.) he accepted paroled Internship status and sat out the balance of hostilities unless dutifully exchanged by the Military Attache in Bern,
(b.) continued to follow the rules of internship while waiting,
(c.) obeyed all Swiss civil and municipal laws & ordinances while interned.
Otherwise, the Swiss classified them the same as what we would consider undocumented illegal alien
s: "non-citizens entering Switzerland without securing authorization." ('les non-citoyens entrant dans la Suisse sans protéger l'autorisation.')
There were between 200-300 internees (Allied and Axis) "apprehended during the act of (or attempt to) escape internship." This violated the terms of parole and internment.
Switzerland maintained "punishment camps" for non-military criminals, and non-residents who broke Swiss law, including any Allied combatants who had been stripped of internee status for:
(a.) violating terms of parole and internment, including (but not limited to) trying to escape or encouraging/aiding others to violate the terms of internment.
(b.) Breaking Swiss criminal laws (drunk/disorderly, assault, rape, theft, destruction of property, etc. which also violated their terms of internship.)
In punishment for what the Swiss thus considered criminal acts, Allied internees were stripped of internee status and sent to punishment camps like Straflager Wauwilermoos as non-citizens who had entered Switzerland without authorization, these former-internees were not "entitled" to what Americans would consider a comprehensive trial at that time. About 160 (or so) Americans were incarcerated in Swiss punishment camps.
Even though its Commandant, Captain Andre Beguin, was condemned, convicted and dishonorably discharged by the Swiss government of administrative misdemeanors, embezzlement, and withholding inmate complaints, these circumstances do not make the inmates in his straflager "POW's."
Today, the same legalese tap-dancing goes on, but the dancing shoes are on the other feet. The G.H.W. Bush Administration cited the same legal standards to justify not granting habeas corpus
or any trial (as a U.S. citizen would expect) to War-On-Terror persons-of-interest and suspects being held in Europe or Gitmo......... and no, I am not equating Allied internees to terrorists, nor do I diminish their service to the Allied cause.