Defence Regulations - Emergency Powers (Defence) Act
Posted 09 January 2010 - 12:14 PM
Here are some of the stories I found in The Times which relate to these Defence Regulations.
Posted 09 January 2010 - 12:18 PM
WIDE EMERGENCY POWERS
TEXT OF THE NEW BILL
REGULATIONS BY ORDER IN COUNCIL
The Emergency Powers (Defence) Bill was issued yesterday. The following is the text, the cross-headings have been inserted:-
1. - (1) Subject to the provisions of this section, his Majesty may by Order in Council make such Regulations (in this Act referred to as "Defence Regulations") as appear to him to be necessary or expedient for securing the public safety, the defence of the realm, the maintenance of public order and the efficient prosecution of any war his Majesty may be engaged, and for maintaining supplies and services essential to the life of the community.
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the powers conferred by the preceding subsection, Defence Regulations may, so far as appears to his Majesty in Council to be necessary or expedient for any of the purposes mentioned in that subsection:-
(a) Make provision for the apprehension, trial, and punishment of persons offending against the Regulations and for the detention of persons whose detention appears to the Secretary of State to be expedient in the interests of the public safety or the defence of the realm;
( authorize -
(i) the taking of possession or control, on behalf of his Majesty, of any property or undertaking;
(ii) the acquisition, on behalf of his Majesty, or any property other than land;
© authorized the entering and searching of any premises; and
(d) provide for amending any enactment, for suspending the operation of any enactment, and for apply any enactment with or without modification.
(3) Defence Regulations may provide for empowering such authorities, persons, or classes of persons as may be specified in the Regulations to make orders, rules, and bye-laws for any of the purposes for which such Regulations are authorized by this Act to be made, and may contain such incidental and supplementary provisions as appear to his Majesty in Council to be necessary or expedient for the purposes of the Regulations.
(4) A Defence Regulation, and any order, rule, or bye-law duly made in pursuance of such a Regulation shall have effect notwithstanding anything inconsistent therewith contained in any enactment other than this Act or in any instrument having effect by virtue of any enactment other than this Act.
(5) Nothing in this section shall authorize the imposition of any form of compulsory naval, military, or air force service or any form of industrial conscription, or the making of provision for the trial by courts-martial of persons not being persons subject to the Naval Discipline Act, to military law, or to the Air Force Act.
(6) In this section the expression "enactment" includes any enactment of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.
POWER TO IMPOSE CHARGES
2. - (1) The Treasury may by order provide for imposing and recovering, in connexion with any scheme of control contained in or authorized by Defence Regulations such charges as may be specified in the order; and any such order may be varied or revoked by a subsequent order of the Treasury.
(2) Any charges recovered by virtue of such an order as aforesaid shall be paid into the Exchequer of the United Kingdom or, if the order so directs, be paid into such public fund or account as may be specified in the order.
(3) Any such order as aforesaid shall be laid before the Commons House of Parliament as soon as my be after it is made, but, notwithstanding anything in subsection (4) of section one of the Rules Publication Act, 1893, shall be deemed not to be a statutory rule to which that section applies.
(4) Any such order as aforesaid imposing or increasing a charge shall cease to have an effect on the expiration of the period of 28 days beginning with the day on which the order is made, unless at some time before the expiration of that period it has been approved by a resolution of the Commons House of Parliament, without prejudice, however, to the validity of anything previously done under the order or to the making of a new order.
In the reckoning any period of 28 days for the purposes of this subsection no account shall be taken of any time during which Parliament is dissolved or prorogued, or during which the Commons House is adjourned for more than four days.
(5) Without prejudice to the preceding provisions of this section, any Defence Regulations may provide -
(a) for charging, in respect of the grant or issue of any licence, permit, certificate, or other document for the purposes of the Regulations, such fee not exceeding £5 as may be prescribed under the Regulations with the approval of the Treasury; and
( for imposing and recovering such charges as may be so prescribed in respect of any services which, in pursuance of such Regulations, are provided on behalf of his Majesty, or under arrangements made on behalf of his Majesty, other than services necessary for the performance of duties imposed by law upon the Crown;
and all sums received by way of such fees or charges as aforesaid shall be paid into the
Exchequer of the United Kingdom or, if the Treasury so direct, be paid into such public fund or account as they may determine.
3. - (1) Unless the contrary intention appears therefrom, any provisions contained in, or having effect under, any Defence Regulation shall -
(a) in so far as they specifically impose prohibitions, restrictions, or obligations in relations to ships, vessels, or aircraft, or specifically authorized the doing of anything in relation to ships, vessels, or aircraft, apply to all ships, vessels, or aircraft in or over the United Kingdom and to all British ships or aircraft, not being Dominion ships or aircraft, wherever they may be; and
( in so far as they impose prohibitions, restrictions, or obligations on persons, apply (subject to the preceding provisions of this subsection) to all persons in the United Kingdom and all persons on board any British ship or aircraft, not being a Dominion ship or aircraft, and to all other persons being British subjects except persons in any of the following countries or territories, that is to say -
(i) a Dominion;
(ii) India, Burma, and Southern Rhodesia,
(iii) any country or territory to which any provisions of this Act can be extended by Order in Council, and
(iv) any other country or territory, being a country or territory under his Majesty's protection or suzerainty;
Provided that Defence Regulations may make provision whereby the owner, manager, or charterer of any British ship or aircraft, being a person resident in the United Kingdom or a corporation incorporated under the law of any part of the United Kingdom, is subjected to restrictions in respect of the employment of persons in any foreign country or territory in connexion with the management of the ship or aircraft.
(2) In this section the expression "Dominion ship or aircraft" means a British ship or aircraft registered in a Dominion, not being a ship or aircraft for the time being placed at the disposal of, or chartered by or on behalf of, his Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom; and, for the purposes of subsection (1) of this section, any ship or aircraft registered in India, Burma or Southern Rhodesia, not being a ship or aircraft for the time being placed at the disposal of, or chartered by or on behalf of, his Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, shall be treated as if it were a Dominion ship or aircraft.
(3) Subsection (1) of this section shall apply in relation to British protected persons, as that subsection applies in relation to British subjects.
4. - (1) His Majesty may by order in Council direct that the provisions of this Act other than this section shall extend, with such exceptions, adaptations, and modifications, if any, as may be specified in the Order, -
(a) to the Isle of Man or any of the Channel Islands,
( to Newfoundland or any colony,
© to any British protectorate,
(d) to any territory in respect of which a mandate on behalf of the League of Nations has been accepted by his Majesty, and is being exercised by his Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, and
(e) (to the extent of his Majesty's jurisdiction therein) to any other country or territory being a foreign country or territory in which for the time being his Majesty has jurisdiction;
and, in particular, but without prejudice to the generality of the preceding provisions of this section, such an Order in Council may direct that any such authority as may be specified in the Order shall be substituted for his Majesty in Council as the authority empowered to make Defence Regulations for the country or territory in respect of which the Order is made.
(2) His Majesty may by Order in Council make, or authorize the making of, provision whereby persons offending against any Defence Regulations may be apprehended, tried and punished in the United Kingdom, or any of the countries or territories specified in the preceding subsection, whether section one of this Act extends to that country or territory or not.
5. - (1) If and so far as the provision of any Act for purposes of defence passed by the Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia or by the Parliament of the Dominion of New Zealand purport to have extra-territorial operation as respects -
(a) ships or aircraft registered in the said Commonwealth or Dominion, or
( the employment of persons in relation to British ships or aircraft by owners, managers, or charterers of such ships or aircraft who are persons resident in the said Commonwealth or Dominion or corporations incorporated under the law of the said Commonwealth or Dominion or any part thereof,
the said provisions shall be deemed to have such operation.
(2) No law made for the purposes of defence by the Indian Legislature or the Federal Legislature of India or by the Legislature of Burma shall, on the ground that it would have extra-territorial operation, be deemed to be invalid in so far as it makes provision whereby any owner, manager, or charterer of a British ship or aircraft who is a person resident in India or Burma or a corporation incorporated under the law of India or Burma or any part thereof, is subjected to restrictions in respect of the employment of persons in relation to the ship or aircraft.
Nothing in this subsection shall be taken to prejudice the effect of section 99 of the Government of India Act, 1935, or section 33 of the Government of Burma Act, 1935.
(3) If and so far as the provisions of any law for the purposes of defence made by the Legislature of Southern Rhodesia purport to have extra-territorial operation as respects -
(a) aircraft registered in Southern Rhodesia, or
( the employment of persons in relation to British aircraft by owners, manager or charterers of such aircraft who are persons resident in Southern Rhodesia or corporations incorporated under the law of Southern Rhodesia,
the said provisions shall be deemed to have such operation.
HEARING IN CAMERA
6. - (1) If, as respects any proceedings before a Court (whether instituted before or after the commencement of this Act), the Court is satisfied that it is expedient, in the interests of the public safety or the defence of the realm so to do, the Court -
(a) may give directions that, throughout, or during any part of, the proceedings, such persons or classes of persons as the Court may determine shall be excluded:
( may give directions prohibiting or restricting the disclosure of information with respect to the proceedings.
The powers conferred by this subsection shall be in addition to, and not in derogation of, any other powers which a court may have to give such directions as aforesaid.
(2) If any person contravenes any directions given by a court under the prejudice subsection, then, without prejudice to the law relating to contempt of court, he shall be liable, on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three months or to a fine not exceeding one hundred pounds or to both such imprisonment and such fine, or, on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or to a fine not exceeding five hundred pounds or to both such imprisonment and such fine.
(3) The operation of subsection (4) of section eight of the Official Secrets Act, 1920, shall be suspended during the continuance in force of this Act.
PROOF OF INSTRUMENTS
7. - Every document purporting to be an instrument made or issued by any Minister or other authority or persons in pursuance of any provision contain in, or having effect under, Defence Regulations, and to be signed by or on behalf of the said Minister, authority or person, shall be received in evidence, and shall, until the contrary is proved, be deemed to be an instrument made or issued by that Minister, authority or person; and prima facie evidence of any such instrument as aforesaid may, in any legal proceedings (including arbitrations), be given by the production of a document purporting to be certified to be a true copy of the instrument by, or on behalf of, the Minister or other authority or person having power to make or issue the instrument.
8. - (1) Every Order in Council containing Defence Regulations shall be laid before Parliament as soon as may be after it is made; but, notwithstanding anything in subsection (4) of section one of the Rules Publication Act, 1893, such an Order shall be deemed not to be a statutory rule to which that section applies.
(2) If either House of Parliament, within the next 28 days on which that House has sat after such an Order in Council as aforesaid is laid before it, resolves that the Order be annulled, the Order shall thereupon cease to have effect except as respects things previously done or omitted to be done, without prejudice, however, to the making of a new Order.
(3) Any power conferred by the preceding provisions of this Act to make an Order in Council shall be construed as including a power to vary or revoke the Order.
9. - The powers conferred by or under this Act shall be in addition to, and not in derogation of, the powers exercisable by virtue of the prerogative of the Crown.
DURATION OF ACT
10. - (1) In this Act the expression "Dominion" means any Dominion within the meaning of the Statute of Westminster, 1931, except Newfoundland, and includes any territory administered by this Majesty's Government in such a Dominion.
(2) References in this Act to British aircraft shall be construed as reference to aircraft registered in any part of his Majesty's Dominions, in any British protectorate, or in any territory in respect of which a mandate on behalf of the League of Nations has been accepted by his Majesty and is being exercised by the Government of any part of his Majesty's Dominions.
(3) For the avoidance of doubt it is hereby declared that any reference in this Act to Defence Regulations includes a reference to regulations made under any provision of this Act, as extended to any country or territory by an Order in Council under this Act, and that any reference in this Act to any country or territory includes a reference to the territorial waters, if any, adjacent to that country or territory
11. - (1) Subject to the provisions of this section, this Act shall continue in force for the period of one year beginning with the date of the passing of the Act, and shall then expire:
Provided that, if at any time while this Act is in force, an address is presented to his Majesty by each House of Parliament praying that this Act should be continued in force for a further period of one year from the time at which it would otherwise expire, his Majesty may by Order in Council direct that this Act shall continue in force for that further period.
(2) Nothwithstanding anything in the preceding subsection, if his Majesty by Order in Council declares that the emergency that was the occasion of the passing of this Act has come to an end, this Act shall expire at the end of the day on which the Order is expressed to come into operation.
(3) The expiry of this Act shall not affect the operation thereof as respects things previously done or omitted to be done.
12. - This Act may be cited as the Emergency Powers (Defence) Act, 1939.
Posted 09 January 2010 - 12:55 PM
CROWD'S HOSTILITY TO AGED MAN
At Clerkenwell Police Court yesterday William Hance, who said he was 83, was fined 40s. when charged under the Defence Regulations with displaying a light at this address in Highgate Road, Kentish Town, which was visible from outside the building. He was also charged with wilfully obstructing Police constable Taylor in the execution of his duty. He pleaded "Not Guilty."
Police constable Taylor said he went to Highgate Road at 10.25 p.m. yesterday and found a large crowd assembled. It was very hostile, and people were shouting "Smash the door down!" In two front ground-floor rooms electric lights were on, with only a thin curtain over the window, and witness knocked at the door, which was opened by Hance. Asked to shade the lights, he refused to do so, and witness entered the house and turned off the lights. The prisoner switched them on again. "Owing to the crowd being so hostile I was forced to take him into custody," added the officer.
In the witness-box, the prisoner said that there had been no complaint whatever about the lights. He had blinds over the windows - a felt blind over one. No light was showing.
"You have got to keep the lights from showing outside, and I am satisfied you did not," remarked the Magistrate (Mr. W.J.H. Brodrick). He told Hance he was liable to three months' imprisonment or a fine not exceeding £100.
Posted 09 January 2010 - 01:14 PM
From The Times, September 7, 1939:
CONTROL OF PIGEONS
IMPORT OR EXPORT ONLY BY LICENCE
Control of pigeons has been instituted by an order made by the Secretary of State for Air on September 3, which has brought Regulation 9 of the Defence Regulations, 1939, into operation as from that date. The general effect is that no one may import or export live pigeons into or out of the United Kingdom except under authority of a licence issued by the Secretary of State for Air. Application for import or export licence for pigeons should be made to the Under-Secretary of State, Air Ministry, S.W.1.
Posted 09 January 2010 - 01:22 PM
MOTOR HORNS EXEMPT FOR "NORMAL USE"
An Order has been issued under the Defence Regulations which forbids anyone to sound within public hearing any syren, hooter, whistle, rattle, bell, horn, gong or similar instrument, except in accordance with directions by the local authority or Chief Constable for air-raid warning purposes. Similarly the firing of maroons and other fireworks fired from a mortar is prohibited.
The Order does not affect the use of instruments of the kind mentioned by railwaymen and by members of a ship's crew, nor does it prevent police officers from sounding whistles, or the ringing of fire alarm bells. It does not apply, also, to church bells or to the normal use of bicycle bells and motor horns.
Posted 09 January 2010 - 01:25 PM
FINED £1 FOR SOUNDING HOOTER
Frank Saunders, a boiler man, of Margam Road, Margam, was yesterday fined £1 at Port Talbot (Glam.) for contravening a section of the Defence Regulations by sounding a hooter at the Guest Keen and Baldwin works at 9 a.m. on September 17.
Mr. R. John, prosecuting, said that the siren caused considerable alarm among the townspeople.
Saunders told the Bench that he accidentally touched a switch and set the hooter sounding and that he could not stop it.
Mr. H. Blazy, defending, suggested that the actual noise made was an all clear and not an air-raid signal.
The case was said to be the first of its kind.
Posted 09 January 2010 - 01:25 PM
FINED FOR PHOTOGRAPHING BARRAGE BALLOON
At Cardiff Police Court yesterday Edwar Pechersky, 21, of Bristol, was fined £2 for taking photographs of a barrage balloon without authority. His father, Philip Perchersky, who was described as a Russian-born naturalized British subject, was fined a similar amount for aiding and abetting.
Posted 09 January 2010 - 01:26 PM
ALLEGED PHOTOGRAPHING OF H.M. FORCES
MAN CHARGED UNDER DEFENCE ACT
Alleged to have taken a photograph of an assembly of H.M. Forces, Charles Henry Wallace Hewitt, 42, quarry owner, of Cranleigh Gardens, Stoke Bishop, Bristol, made a further appearance at Bristol Police Court yesterday charged with contravening the Defence Regulations, 1939.
Hewitt, who had been previously charged with being in the vicinity of a protected place for a purpose prejudicial to the public safety and the defence of the realm, was yesterday further charged that he "on September 25, without the authority of a written permit from the Secretary of State for War or other written authority, did take a photograph of an assembly of H.M. Forces."
Mr. A.C. Caffin, solicitor for the prosecution, asked for a further remand until Thursday, October 12.
Mr. F.A. Wilshire, for the defence, made an application that Hewitt should be released on bail.
Mr. Caffin said that the prosecution had no objection to bail subject to Hewitt reporting to the police every day. On that condition he would be released on his own surety of £50 and another surety of a like sum.
Hewitt, who agreed to report to the police very 24 hours, was remanded on bail until October 12.
From The Times, October 13, 1939:
ALLEGED PHOTOGRAPH OF TROOPS
DEFENCE COUNSEL'S PROTEST
Charles Henry Wallace Hewitt, 42, of Cranleigh Gardens, Stoke Bishop, Bristol, who was charged with two offences the defence regulations, was remanded for a third time at Bristol yesterday. The charges were that on September 25 he was in the vicinity of a protected place for a purpose prejudicial to the public safety or the defence of the realm, and that on the same day, without a permit from the Secretary of State for War, he took a photograph of an assembly of his Majesty's Forces.
Granting a remand until October 20 the magistrates renew bail, but removed a restriction calling on Hewitt to report to the police every day. It was stated that a principal witness for the prosecution had been taken ill.
Mr. G.D. Roberts, K.C., for Hewitt, said he wanted to oppose the application for a remand on the strongest possible grounds. Hewitt, ignorant as most people were that it was illegal to take photographs of troops on the road, took a photography by permission of the n.c.o. and the officer in charge of two tanks and some soldiers. Hewitt had served in the last War in the Tank Corps.
When Mr. A.C. Caffin, for the prosecution, objected to Mr. Roberts going into facts of the case, Mr. Roberts said that he wanted no mystery and no secrecy over the matter. Hewitt, well known and respected in Bristol, who served in the Army for three years and was wounded in the last War, was arrested on a charge which savoured of disloyalty and spying. He urged that the illness of a witness should not stop Mr. Caffin from opening the case. They had to consider the question of justice to the defendant.
The Chairman said they were convinced that it would be in the interests of all concerned if the application was granted.
Posted 09 January 2010 - 01:27 PM
ALLEGED INFORMATION USEFUL TO ENEMY
CHARGES UNDER DEFENCE REGULATIONS
At Birmingham yesterday Hyman Richard Diamond, 35, described as a business man, of Pakenham Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham, was charged under the Defence Regulations with unlawfully doing an act calculated to suggest that he was acting in the service of his Majesty and with communicating to certain other persons information, or purporting to be information, with respect to a matter which might be directly or indirectly useful to an enemy.
Mr. M.P. Pugh, solicitor, for the prosecution, alleged at the previous hearing that Diamond had given descriptions of his "experiences" when he was in action in the Maginot Line to two British Army officers whom he met in a Birmingham club. He was dressed in Australian uniform, and told them that he had seen the French tanks in action, and made references to British casualties.
Mr. C.C. Ladds, defending, applied to-day for a further remand.
Mr. Pugh, agreeing to the remain, said that to-day certain information about Diamond of "very great importance" had been received from Leeds, and further extensive inquiries would have to be made by the police in that district. As a result of these investigations it might be that certain other charges would be preferred against him.
Diamond was remanded until October 19 on bail of £400, himself in £200 and one surety of £200.
Posted 09 January 2010 - 01:28 PM
MAN'S POSE AS HIGH A.R.P. OFFICIAL
CAUSED WORK HOLD-UP AT FACTORY
At Birmingham Police Court yesterday William Raymond Roberts, 26, of Debenham Road, South Yardley, Birmingham, was fined £5 under the Defence Regulations for masquerading as a person acting in an essential service. He was discharged under the Probation of Offenders Act on charges of stealing A.R.P. equipment, including a respirator, armlet, badge, and helmet, and of wearing a uniform without authority. He pleaded "Guilty" to all the charges.
Mr. M.P. Hugh, solicitor, for the prosecution, said that during the crisis in September last year Roberts posed as an R.A.F. lieutenant granted special leave to assist the Birmingham A.R.P. officer. There was not a vestige of truth in his story, but it was believed that he was given certain work to do.
In September this year he masqueraded as a man engaged on civil defence work, and said that he had been testing aeroplanes at a Government factory. Wearing the uniform of an air raid warden, he went to a certain factory engaged on vital supplies for the prosecution of war, and staged a mock air raid. "Such was his behaviour at this factory," said Mr. Pugh, "that the whole of it was temporarily put out of action by this bombastic young man."
Work was again suspended while Roberts carried out an inspection of the workers' respirators. He saw the managing director, told him of the equipment required, and promised to order it. Counsel described as "a very wicked thing" Roberts' instructions to the factory to ignore the sirens unless they got a telephone message from an A.R.P. post.
Mr. Pugh said that the time Roberts put in at his "works" had been anything from 16 to 18 hours a day, and an official at one post asked him if he ever slept.
Mr. Herbert Willison, solicitor, defending, said there was nothing evil behind Roberts' intentions. It was an extraordinary case of self-glorification. He had been a voluntary worker at one time, and was no doubt carried away with it.
Posted 09 January 2010 - 01:28 PM
WOMAN FASCIST BOUND OVER
HOSTILE CROWD AT EAST END MEETING
A scene at a Fascist meeting in Essian Street, Limehouse, had a sequel at Thames Police Court yesterday, when three members of the British Union of Fascists appeared on remand before Mr. W.R. Howard.
Margaret Ellen Griggs, 25, married, described as of Beaufort Mansions, Chelsea, chief woman organizer of the B.U.F., was bound over in the sum of £50 for 12 months on charges of obstructing a police inspector and using insulting words at a public meeting. A further charge under the Defence Regulations again Griggs for endeavouring orally to influence public opinion in a manner likely to be prejudicial to the defence of the Realm was not proceeded with.
Edited by dbf, 09 January 2010 - 01:56 PM.
Posted 09 January 2010 - 03:04 PM
Thanks, you must have had fun! Just reading and transcribing the '39 Bill nearly gave me a headache.
I honestly found myself surprised by the banning of photography with respect to HM Forces etc; just didn't think about it at all, despite being aware of censorship in general terms. Would imagine that quite a few of the cases reported initially in The Times were test cases / to warn others. I can't see how the general populace could have been aware of all the repercussions at the time.
The minutiae of what was debated is also fascinating, like facing which way a car should be parked.
Posted 09 January 2010 - 03:54 PM
CHARGES OF "INFORMATION USEFUL TO THE ENEMY"
Charges under the Emergency Powers (Defence) Regulations, referring to "information useful to the enemy," were preferred at Exmouth yesterday against two men - Claude Felix Pierre Duvivier, Sanctuary Farm, Woodbury, near Exmouth, and William Alexander Crowle, Cardinal Avenue, Devenport. The cases were dealt with separately and evidence of arrest was given. Application for bail was made by both men, but it was refused and they were remanded into custody till January 29.
Edited by dbf, 09 January 2010 - 04:24 PM.
Posted 09 January 2010 - 04:05 PM
Think you're right about making examples of people at the beginning, but those reported later were probably just as likely to be good old jobsworths throwing their weight around.
I mean, charging someone with "spreading alarm and despondency" could mean just about anything.....
Posted 09 January 2010 - 04:54 PM
I mean, charging someone with "spreading alarm and despondency" could mean just about anything.....
How fortunate that I was born too late, the look on my face would've set me up for prosecution.
To say that the Regs were all-encompassing would perhaps be an understatement then?
Posted 09 January 2010 - 05:32 PM
I'm sure I read that Orwell at least partly used them as inspiration in Animal Farm, but that's maybe apocryphal.
Posted 23 February 2010 - 10:32 PM
2 parts in your question.
Conscription did not apply to NI. Therefore as I have said many a time on this forum, all those from the whole of the island were volunteers in British Forces.
To my mind a tad more complicated than 'to please Eire' and not I am sure the foremost reason. Is that your summary or a quote? Basically there would have been many living in NI who would have protested should they have been required to register for service as those in UK Mainland did. Britain also had to keep in mind the activities of the IRA as well as the sensibilities of a neutral Ireland. Why force conscription and end up having to deal with civil disobedience in NI.
The National Archives | DocumentsOnline | Search Results
Edited by dbf, 23 February 2010 - 11:05 PM.
Posted 24 February 2010 - 07:03 AM
But ,thank you for your confirmation ?
Btw :are there any figures about the % of volunteers in Northern Ireland,in comparison to the % of people in the rest of the UK that volunteered-were called up ?
And is it possible to make a comparison between the % of catholicks and others in Northern Ireland that volunteered (from what I remembered,the only VC winner in Northern Ireland ,was a catholic )?
I have read somewhere that there were also a lot of volunteers from Eire ?
Posted 24 February 2010 - 10:15 AM
Some links and statistics here...
BBC NEWS | UK | Northern Ireland | Irish who fought on the beaches
Irish Regiments and History
Edited by handtohand22, 24 February 2010 - 10:20 AM.
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